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QUESTION 1 #

Which resource cannot be defined in an Ansible Playbook?

A. Fact Gathering State
B. Host Groups
C. Inventory File
D. Variables

Correct Answer: C

Ansible\\’s inventory can only be specified on the command line, the Ansible configuration file, or in environment variables.

Reference: http://docs.ansible.com/ansible/intro_inventory.html

QUESTION 2 #

A retail company wants to use AWS Elastic Beanstalk to host its online sales website running on Java. Since this will be the production website, the CTO has the following requirements for the deployment strategy:

1. Zero downtime. While the deployment is ongoing, the current Amazon EC2 instances in service should remain in service. No deployment or any other action should be performed on the EC2 instances because they serve production traffic.

2. A new fleet of instances should be provisioned for deploying the new application version.

3. Once the new application version is deployed successfully in the new fleet of instances, the new instances should be placed in service and the old ones should be removed.

4. The rollback should be as easy as possible. If the new fleet of instances fails to deploy the new application version, they should be terminated and the current instances should continue serving traffic as normal.

5. The resources within the environment (EC2 Auto Scaling group, Elastic Load Balancing, Elastic Beanstalk DNS CNAME) should remain the same and no DNS change should be made.

Which deployment strategy will meet the requirements?

A. Use rolling deployments with a fixed amount of one instance at a time and set the healthy threshold to OK.

B. Use rolling deployments with an additional batch with a fixed amount of one instance at a time and set the healthy threshold to OK.

C. launch a new environment and deploy the new application version there, then perform a CNAME swap between environments.

D. Use immutable environment updates to meet all the necessary requirements.

Correct Answer: D

QUESTION 3 #

A social networking service runs a web API that allows its partners to search public posts. Post data is
stored in Amazon DynamoDB and indexed by AWS Lambda functions, with an Amazon ES domain storing the indexes and providing search functionality to the application.

The service needs to maintain full capacity during deployments and ensure that failed deployments do not cause downtime or reduce capacity or prevent subsequent deployments.

How can these requirements be met? (Choose two.)

A. Run the web application in AWS Elastic Beanstalk with the deployment policy set to All at Once. Deploy the Lambda functions, DynamoDB tables, and Amazon ES domain with an AWS CloudFormation template.

B. Deploy the web application, Lambda functions, DynamoDB tables, and Amazon ES domain in an AWS CloudFormation template. Deploy changes with an AWS CodeDeploy in-place deployment.

C. Run the web application in AWS Elastic Beanstalk with the deployment policy set to Immutable. Deploy the Lambda functions, DynamoDB tables, and Amazon ES domain with an AWS CloudFormation template.

D. Deploy the web application, Lambda functions, DynamoDB tables, and Amazon ES domain in an AWS CloudFormation template. Deploy changes with an AWS CodeDeploy blue/green deployment.
E. Run the web application in AWS Elastic Beanstalk with the deployment policy set to Rolling. Deploy the Lambda functions, DynamoDB tables, and Amazon ES domain with an AWS CloudFormation template.

Correct Answer: CD

QUESTION 4 #

A company is deploying a container-based application using AWS CodeBuild. The Security team mandates that all containers are scanned for vulnerabilities prior to deployment using a password-protected endpoint.

All sensitive information must be stored securely.
Which solution should be used to meet these requirements?

A. Encrypt the password using AWS KMS. Store the encrypted password in the buildspec.yml file as an environment variable under the variables mapping. Reference the environment variable to initiate scanning.

B. Import the password into an AWS CloudHSM key. Reference the CloudHSM key in the buildpec.yml file as an environment variable under the variables mapping. Reference the environment variable to initiate scanning.

C. Store the password in the AWS Systems Manager Parameter Store as a secure string. Add the Parameter Store key to the buildspec.yml file as an environment variable under the parameter-store mapping. Reference the environment variable to initiate scanning.

D. Use the AWS Encryption SDK to encrypt the password and embed in the buildspec.yml file as a variable under the secrets mapping. Attach a policy to CodeBuild to enable access to the required decryption key.

Correct Answer: C

QUESTION 5 #

A user is creating a new EBS volume from an existing snapshot. The snapshot size shows 10 GB. Can the user create a volume of 30 GB from that snapshot?

A. Provided the original volume has set the change size attribute to true
B. Yes
C. Provided the snapshot has the modified size attribute set as true
D. No

Correct Answer: B

Explanation: A user can always create a new EBS volume of a higher size than the original snapshot size. The user cannot create a volume of a lower size. When the new volume is created the size in the instance will be shown as the original size.

The user needs to change the size of the device with resize2fs or other OS-specific commands.

QUESTION 6 #

A company is deploying a new mobile game on AWS for its customers around the world. The Development team uses AWS Code services and must meet the following requirements:

Clients need to send/receive real-time playing data from the backend frequently and with minimal latency -Game data must meet the data residency requirement

Which strategy can a DevOps Engineer implement to meet their needs?

A. Deploy the backend application to multiple regions. Any update to the code repository triggers a two-stage build and deployment pipeline. Successful deployment in one region invokes an AWS Lambda function to copy the build artifacts to an Amazon S3 bucket in another region. After the artifact is copied, it triggers a deployment pipeline in the new region.

B. Deploy the backend application to multiple Availability Zones in a single region. Create an Amazon CloudFront distribution to serve the application backend to global customers. Any update to the code repository triggers a two-stage build-and-deployment pipeline. The pipeline deploys the backend application to all Availability Zones.

C. Deploy the backend application to multiple regions. Use AWS Direct Connect to serve the application backend to global customers. Any update to the code repository triggers a two-stage build-and-deployment pipeline in the region. After successful deployment in the region, the pipeline continues to deploy the artifact to another region.

D. Deploy the backend application to multiple regions. Any update to the code repository triggers a two-stage build-and-deployment pipeline in the region. After successful deployment in the region, the pipeline invokes the pipeline in another region and passes the build artifact location. The pipeline uses the artifact location and deploys applications in the new region.

Correct Answer: A

Reference:
https://docs.aws.amazon.com/codepipeline/latest/userguide/integrations-actiontype.html#integrationsinvoke

QUESTION 7 #

What needs to be done in order to remotely access a Docker daemon running on Linux?

A. add certificate authentication to the Docker API
B. change the encryption level to TLS
C. enable the TCP socket
D. bind the Docker API to a Unix socket

Correct Answer: C

The Docker daemon can listen for Docker Remote API requests via three different types of Socket: Unix, TCP, and fd. By default, a Unix domain socket (or IPC socket) is created at /var/run/docker.sock, requiring either root permission, or docker group membership.

If you need to access the Docker daemon remotely, you need to enable the TCP Socket.
Beware that the default setup provides unencrypted and unauthenticated direct access to the Docker daemon – and should be secured either using the built-in HTTPS encrypted socket or by putting a secure web proxy in front of it.

Reference: https://docs.docker.com/engine/reference/commandline/dockerd/#daemon-socket-option

QUESTION 8 #

A company runs an application on Amazon EC2 instances behind an Application Load Balancer. The instances run in an Amazon EC2 Auto Scaling group across multiple Availability Zones in us-east-1. The application stores data in an Amazon RDS MySQL Multi-AZ DB instance.

A DevOps engineer wants to modify the current solution and create a hot standby of the environment in another region to minimize downtime if a problem occurs in us-east-1.

Which combination of steps should the DevOps engineer take to meet these requirements? (Choose three.)

A. Add a health check to the Amazon Route 53 alias record to evaluate the health of the primary region. Use AWS Lambda, configured with an Amazon CloudWatch Events trigger, to promote the Amazon RDS read replica in the disaster recovery region.

B. Create a new Application Load Balancer and Amazon EC2 Auto Scaling group in the disaster recovery region.

C. Extend the current Amazon EC2 Auto Scaling group to the subnets in the disaster recovery region.

D. Enable multi-region failover for the RDS configuration for the database instance.

E. Deploy a read replica of the RDS instance in the disaster recovery region.

F. Create an AWS Lambda function to evaluate the health of the primary region. If it fails, modify the Amazon Route 53 record to point at the disaster recovery region and promote the RDS read replica.

Correct Answer: ABE

QUESTION 9 #

Which of the following is an invalid variable name in Ansible?

A. host1st_ref
B. host-first-ref
C. Host1stRef
D. host_first_ref

Correct Answer: B

Variable names can contain letters, numbers, and underscores and should always start with a letter. Invalid variable examples, host first ref\\',1st_host_ref\’\’.

Reference: http://docs.ansible.com/ansible/playbooks_variables.html#what-makes-a-valid-variable-name

QUESTION 10 #

A company is hosting a web application in an AWS Region. For disaster recovery purposes, a second region is being used as a standby. Disaster recovery requirements state that session data must be replicated between regions in near real-time and 1% of requests should route to the secondary region to continuously verify system functionality.

Additionally, if there is a disruption in service in the main region, traffic should be automatically routed to the secondary region, and the secondary region must be able to scale up to handle all traffic. How should a DevOps Engineer meet these requirements?

A. In both regions, deploy the application on AWS Elastic Beanstalk and use Amazon DynamoDB global tables for session data. Use an Amazon Route 53 weighted routing policy with health checks to distribute the traffic across the regions.

B. In both regions, launch the application in Auto Scaling groups and use DynamoDB for session data. Use a Route 53 failover routing policy with health checks to distribute the traffic across the regions.

C. In both regions, deploy the application in AWS Lambda, exposed by Amazon API Gateway, and use Amazon RDS PostgreSQL with cross-region replication for session data. Deploy the web application with client-side logic to call the API Gateway directly.

D. In both regions, launch the application in Auto Scaling groups and use DynamoDB global tables for session data. Enable an Amazon CloudFront weighted distribution across regions. Point the Amazon Route 53 DNS record at the CloudFront distribution.

Correct Answer: A

QUESTION 11 #

The development team is creating a social media game that ranks users on a scoreboard. The current implementation uses an Amazon RDS for MySQL database for storing user data; however, the game cannot display scores quickly enough during performance testing.

Which service would provide the fastest retrieval times?

A. Migrate user data to Amazon DynamoDB for managing content.
B. Use AWS Batch to compute and deliver user and score content.
C. Deploy Amazon CloudFront for user and score content delivery.
D. Set up Amazon ElastiCache to deliver user and score content.

Correct Answer: D

QUESTION 12 #

Ansible supports running Playbook on the host directly or via SSH. How can Ansible be told to run its playbooks directly on the host?

A. Setting connection: local\’ in the tasks that run locally.
B. Specifying-type local\’ on the command line.
C. It does not need to be specified; it is the default.
D. Setting connection: local\’ in the Playbook.

Correct Answer: D

Ansible can be told to run locally on the command line with the-c\’ option or can be told via the connection: local\’ declaration in the playbook. The default connection method isremote\’.

Reference: http://docs.ansible.com/ansible/intro_inventory.html#non-ssh-connection-types

QUESTION 13 #

A company has an application deployed using Amazon ECS with data stored in an Amazon DynamoDB table. The company wants the application to failover to another Region in a disaster recovery scenario. The application must also efficiently recover from any accidental data loss events. The RPO for the application is 1 hour and the RTO is 2 hours.

Which highly available solution should a DevOps engineer recommend?

A. Change the configuration of the existing DynamoDB table. Enable this as a global table and specify the second Region that will be used. Enable DynamoDB point-in-time recovery.

B. Enable DynamoDB Streams for the table and create an AWS Lambda function to write the stream data to an S3 bucket in the second Region. Schedule a job for every 2 hours to use AWS Data Pipeline to restore the database to the failover Region.

C. Export the DynamoDB table every 2 hours using AWS Data Pipeline to an Amazon S3 bucket in the second Region. Use Data Pipeline in the second Region to restore the export from S3 into the second DynamoDB table.

D. Use AWS DMS to replicate the data every hour. Set the original DynamoDB table as the source and the new DynamoDB table as the target.

Correct Answer: B

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