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QUESTION 1
A DevOps engineer is building a centralized CI/CD pipeline using AWS CodeBuild, AWS CodeDeploy, and Amazon S3.
The engineer is required to have the least privilege access and individual encryption at rest for all artifacts in Amazon S3.
The engineer must be able to prune old artifacts without the ability to download or read them.
The engineer has already completed the following steps:
1.
Created a unique AWS KMS CMK and S3 bucket for each project\\’s builds.
2.
Updated the S3 bucket policy to only allow uploads that use the associated KMS encryption.
Which final step should be taken to meet these requirements?
A. Update the attached IAM policies to allow access to the appropriate KMS key from the CodeDeploy role where the
application will be deployed.
B. Update the attached IAM policies to allow access to the appropriate KMS key from the EC2 instance roles where the
application will be deployed.
C. Update the CMK key policy to allow access to the appropriate KMS key from the CodeDeploy role where the
application will be deployed.
D. Update the CMK key policy to allow to the appropriate KMS key from the EC2 instance roles where the application
will be deployed.
Correct Answer: A

QUESTION 2
Your system uses a multi-master, multi-region DynamoDB configuration spanning two regions to achieve high
availablity. For the first time since launching your system, one of the AWS Regions in which you operate over went
down for 3 hours, and the failover worked correctly. However, after recovery, your users are experiencing strange bugs,
in which users on different sides of the globe see different data. What is a likely design issue that was not accounted for
when launching?
A. The system does not have Lambda Functor Repair Automatons, to perform table scans and chack for corrupted
partition blocks inside the Table in the recovered Region.
B. The system did not implement DynamoDB Table Defragmentation for restoring partition performance in the Region
that experienced an outage, so data is served stale.
C. The system did not include repair logic and request replay buffering logic for post-failure, to resynchronize data to the
Region that was unavailable for a number of hours.
D. The system did not use DynamoDB Consistent Read requests, so the requests in different areas are not utilizing
consensus across Regions at runtime.
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: When using multi-region DynamoDB systems, it is of paramount importance to make sure that all requests
made to one Region are replicated to the other. Under normal operation, the system in question would correctly perform
write replays into the other Region. If a whole Region went down, the system would be unable to perform these writes
for the period of downtime. Without buffering write requests somehow, there would be no way for the system to replay
dropped crossregion writes, and the requests would be serviced differently depending on the Region from which they
were served after recovery.
Reference: http://docs.aws.amazon.com/amazondynamodb/latest/developerguide/Streams.CrossRegionRepl.html

QUESTION 3
A DevOps Engineer is using AWS CodeDeploy across a fleet of Amazon EC2 instances in an EC2 Auto Scaling group.
The associated CodeDeploy deployment group, which is integrated with EC2 Auto Scaling, is configured to perform inplace deployments with CodeDeployDefault.OneAtATime. During an ongoing new deployment, the Engineer discovers
that, although the overall deployment finished successfully, two out of five instances have the previous application
revision deployed. The other three instances have the newest application revision. What is likely causing this issue?
A. The two affected instances failed to fetch the new deployment.
B. A failed AfterInstall lifecycle event hook caused the CodeDeploy agent to roll back to the previous version on the
affected instances.
C. The CodeDeploy agent was not installed in two affected instances.
D. EC2 Auto Scaling launched two new instances while the new deployment had not yet finished, causing the previous
version to be deployed on the affected instances.
Correct Answer: D


QUESTION 4
Your company needs to automate 3 layers of a large cloud deployment. You want to be able to track this
deployment\\’s evolution as it changes over time, and carefully control any alterations.
What is a good way to automate a stack to meet these requirements?
A. Use OpsWorks Stacks with three layers to model the layering in your stack.
B. Use CloudFormation Nested Stack Templates, with three child stacks to represent the three logical layers of your
cloud.
C. Use AWS Config to declare a configuration set that AWS should roll out to your cloud.
D. Use Elastic Beanstalk Linked Applications, passing the important DNS entires between layers using the metadata
interface.
Correct Answer: B
Only CloudFormation allows source controlled, declarative templates as the basis for stack automation.
Nested Stacks help achieve clean separation of layers while simultaneously providing a method to control
all layers at once when needed.
Reference:
https://blogs.aws.amazon.com/application-management/post/Tx1T9JYQOS8AB9I/Use-Nested-Stacks-toCreateReusable-Templates-and-Support-Role-Specialization

QUESTION 5
A Development team uses AWS CodeCommit for source code control. Developers apply their changes to various
feature branches and create pull requests to move those changes to the master branch when they are ready for
production. A direct push to the master branch should not be allowed. The team applied the AWS managed policy
AWSCodeCommitPowerUser to the Developers’ IAM Rote, but now members are able to push to the master branch
directly on every repository in the AWS account. What actions should be taken to restrict this?
A. Create an additional policy to include a deny rule for the codecommit:GitPushaction, and include a restriction for the
specific repositories in the resource statement with a condition for the master reference.
B. Remove the IAM policy and add an AWSCodeCommitReadOnlypolicy. Add an allow rule for the codecommit:GitPush
action for the specific repositories in the resource statement with a condition for the master reference.
C. Modify the IAM policy and include a deny rule for the codecommit:GitPushaction for the specific repositories in the
resource statement with a condition for the master reference.
D. Create an additional policy to include an allow rule for the codecommit:GitPushaction and include a restriction for the
specific repositories in the resource statement with a condition for the feature branches reference.
Correct Answer: A
Reference:
https://aws.amazon.com/pt/blogs/devops/refining-access-to-branches-in-aws-codecommit/

QUESTION 6
Your system automatically provisions EIPs to EC2 instances in a VPC on boot. The system provisions the whole VPC
and stack at once. You have two of them per VPC. On your new AWS account, your attempt to create a Development
environment failed, after successfully creating Staging and Production environments in the same region. What
happened?
A. You didn\\’t choose the Development version of the AMI you are using.
B. You didn\\’t set the Development flag to true when deploying EC2 instances.
C. You hit the soft limit of 5 EIPs per region and requested a 6th.
D. You hit the soft limit of 2 VPCs per region and requested a 3rd.
Correct Answer: C
There is a soft limit of 5 EIPs per Region for VPC on new accounts. The third environment could not allocate the 6th
EIP. Reference: http://docs.aws.amazon.com/general/latest/gr/aws_service_limits.html#limits_vpc

QUESTION 7
A DevOps team manages an API running on-premises that serves as a backend for an Amazon API Gateway endpoint.
Customers have been complaining about high response latencies, which the development team has verified using the
API Gateway latency metrics in Amazon CloudWatch. To identify the cause, the team needs to collect relevant data
without introducing additional latency.
Which actions should be taken to accomplish this? (Choose two.)
A. Install the CloudWatch agent server side and configure the agent to upload relevant logs to CloudWatch.
B. Enable AWS X-Ray tracing in API Gateway, modify the application to capture request segments, and upload those
segments to X-Ray during each request.
C. Enable AWS X-Ray tracing in API Gateway, modify the application to capture request segments, and use the X-Ray
daemon to upload segments to X-Ray.
D. Modify the on-premises application to send log information back to API Gateway with each request.
E. Modify the on-premises application to calculate and upload statistical data relevant to the API service requests to
CloudWatch metrics.
Correct Answer: CE


QUESTION 8
A DevOps engineer has been tasked with ensuring that all Amazon S3 buckets, except for those with the word “public”
in the name, allow access only to authorized users utilizing S3 bucket policies. The security team wants to be notified
when a bucket is created without the proper policy and for the policy to be automatically updated.
Which solutions will meet these requirements?
A. Create a custom AWS Config rule that will trigger an AWS Lambda function when an S3 bucket is created or
updated. Use the Lambda function to look for S3 buckets that should be private, but that do not have a bucket policy
that enforces privacy. When such a bucket is found, invoke a remediation action and use Amazon SNS to notify the
security team.
B. Create an Amazon EventBridge (Amazon CloudWatch Events) rule that triggers when an S3 bucket is created. Use
an AWS Lambda function to determine whether the bucket should be private. If the bucket should be private, update the
PublicAccessBlock configuration. Configure a second EventBridge (CloudWatch Events) rule to notify the security team
using Amazon SNS when PutBucketPolicy is called.
C. Create an Amazon S3 event notification that triggers when an S3 bucket is created that does not have the word
“public” in the name. Define an AWS Lambda function as a target for this notification and use the function to apply a
new default policy to the S3 bucket. Create an additional notification with the same filter and use Amazon SNS to send
an email to the security team.
D. Create an Amazon EventBridge (Amazon CloudWatch Events) rule that triggers when a new object is created in a
bucket that does not have the word “public” in the name. Target and use an AWS Lambda function to update the
PublicAccessBlock configuration. Create an additional notification with the same filter and use Amazon SNS to send an
email to the security team.
Correct Answer: D

QUESTION 9
An e-commerce company is running a web application in an AWS Elastic Beanstalk environment. In recent months, the
average load of the Amazon EC2 instances has been increased to handle more traffic. The company would like to
improve the scalability and resilience of the environment. The Development team has been asked to decouple longrunning tasks from the environment if the tasks can be executed asynchronously. Examples of these tasks include
confirmation emails when users are registered to the platform, and processing images or videos. Also, some of the
periodic tasks that are currently running within the web server should be offloaded.
What is the MOST time-efficient and integrated way to achieve this?
A. Create an Amazon SQS queue and send the tasks that should be decoupled from the Elastic Beanstalk web server
environment to the SQS queue. Create a fleet of EC2 instances under an Auto Scaling group. Use an AMI that contains
the application to process the asynchronous tasks, configure the application to listen for messages within the SQS
queue, and create periodic tasks by placing those into the cron in the operating system. Create an environment variable
within the Elastic Beanstalk environment with a value pointing to the SQS queue endpoint.
B. Create a second Elastic Beanstalk worker tier environment and deploy the application to process the asynchronous
tasks there. Send the tasks that should be decoupled from the original Elastic Beanstalk web server environment to the
auto-generated Amazon SQS queue by the Elastic Beanstalk worker environment. Place a cron.yaml file within the root
of the application source bundle for the worker environment for periodic tasks. Use environment links to link the web
server environment with the worker environment.
C. Create a second Elastic Beanstalk web server tier environment and deploy the application to process the
asynchronous tasks. Send the tasks that should be decoupled from the original Elastic Beanstalk web server to the autogenerated Amazon SQS queue by the second Elastic Beanstalk web server tier environment. Place a cron.yaml file
within the root of the application source bundle for the second web server tier environment with the necessary periodic
tasks. Use environment links to link both web server environments.
D. Create an Amazon SQS queue and send the tasks that should be decoupled from the Elastic Beanstalk web server
environment to the SQS queue. Create a fleet of EC2 instances under an Auto Scaling group. Install and configure the
application to listen for messages within the SQS queue from UserData and create periodic tasks by placing those into
the cron in the operating system. Create an environment variable within the Elastic Beanstalk web server environment
with a value pointing to the SQS queue endpoint.
Correct Answer: B

QUESTION 10
Your application requires a fault-tolerant, low-latency and repeatable method to load configurations files via
Auto Scaling when Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) instances launch.
Which approach should you use to satisfy these requirements?
A. Securely copy the content from a running Amazon EC2 instance.
B. Use an Amazon EC2 UserData script to copy the configurations from an Amazon Storage Services (S3) bucket.
C. Use a script via cfn-init to pull content hosted in an Amazon ElastiCache cluster.
D. Use a script via cfn-init to pull content hosted on your on-premises server.
E. Use an Amazon EC2 UserData script to pull content hosted on your on-premises server.
Correct Answer: B


QUESTION 11
An n-tier application requires a table in an Amazon RDS MySQL DB instance to be dropped and repopulated at each
deployment. This process can take several minutes and the web tier cannot come online until the process is complete.
Currently, the web tier is configured in an Amazon EC2 Auto Scaling group, with instances being terminated and
replaced at each deployment. The MySQL table is populated by running a SQL query through an AWS CodeBuild job.
What should be done to ensure that the web tier does not come online before the database is completely configured?
A. Use Amazon Aurora as a drop-in replacement for RDS MySQL. Use snapshots to populate the table with the correct
data.
B. Modify the launch configuration of the Auto Scaling group to pause user data execution for 600 seconds, allowing the
table to be populated.
C. Use AWS Step Functions to monitor and maintain the state of data population. Mark the database in service before
continuing with the deployment.
D. Use an EC2 Auto Scaling lifecycle hook to pause the configuration of the web tier until the table is populated.
Correct Answer: D

QUESTION 12
You need to replicate API calls across two systems in real-time. What tool should you use as a buffer and transport
the mechanism for API call events?
A. AWS SQS
B. AWS Lambda
C. AWS Kinesis
D. AWS SNS
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: AWS Kinesis is an event stream service. Streams can act as buffers and transport across systems for inorder programmatic events, making it ideal for replicating API calls across systems. A typical Amazon Kinesis Streams
application reads data from an Amazon Kinesis stream as data records. These applications can use the Amazon
Kinesis Client Library, and they can run on Amazon EC2 instances. The processed records can be sent to dashboards,
used to generate alerts, dynamically change pricing and advertising strategies, or send data to a variety of other AWS
services. For information about Streams features and pricing, see Amazon Kinesis Streams.
Reference:
http://docs.aws.amazon.com/kinesis/latest/dev/introduction.html


QUESTION 13
A DevOps Engineer is developing a deployment strategy that will allow for data-driven decisions before a feature is fully
approved for general availability. The current deployment process uses AWS CloudFormation and blue/green-style
deployments. The development team has decided that customers should be randomly assigned to groups, rather than
using a set percentage, and redirects should be avoided. What process should be followed to implement the new
deployment strategy?
A. Configure Amazon Route 53 weighted records for the blue and green stacks, with 50% of traffic configured to route to
each stack.
B. Configure Amazon CloudFront with an AWS [email protected] function to set a cookie when CloudFront receives a
request. Assign the user to a version A or B, and configure the web server to redirect to version A or B.
C. Configure Amazon CloudFront with an AWS [email protected] function to set a cookie when CloudFront receives a
request. Assign the user to a version A or B, then return the corresponding version to the viewer.
D. Configure Amazon Route 53 with an AWS Lambda function to set a cookie when Amazon CloudFront receives a
request. Assign the user to version A or B, then return the corresponding version to the viewer.
Correct Answer: C

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