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QUESTION 1

An organization is setting up a backup and restoring the system in AWS of their on-premise system. The organization needs High Availability(HA) and Disaster Recovery(DR) but is okay to have a longer recovery time to save costs.

Which of the below-mentioned setup options helps achieve the objective of cost-saving as well as DR in the most effective way?

A. Setup pre-configured servers and create AMIs. Use EIP and Route 53 to quickly switch over to AWS from in-premise.
B. Setup the backup data on S3 and transfer data to S3 regularly using the storage gateway.
C. Setup a small instance with AutoScaling; in case of DR start diverting all the load to AWS from on-premise.
D. Replicate on-premise DB to EC2 at regular intervals and set up a scenario similar to the pilot light.

Correct Answer: B

Explanation: AWS has many solutions for Disaster Recovery(DR) and High Availability(HA). When the organization wants to have HA and DR but is okay to have a longer recovery time they should select the option backup and restore with S3.

The data can be sent to S3 using either Direct Connect, Storage Gateway, or over the internet. The EC2 instance will pick the data from the S3 bucket when started and set up the environment. This process takes longer but is very cost-effective due to the low pricing of S3. In all the other options, the EC2 instance might be running or there will be AMI storage costs.

Thus, it will be a costlier option. In this scenario, the organization should plan appropriate tools to take a backup, plan the retention policy for data, and set up the security of the data.

Reference:
http://d36cz9buwru1tt.cloudfront.net/AWS_Disaster_Recovery.pdf

QUESTION 2

An organization is setting up a web application with the JEE stack. The application uses the JBoss app server and MySQL DB. The application has a logging module that logs all the activities whenever a business function of the JEE application is called. The logging activity takes some time due to the large size of the log file.

If the application wants to set up a scalable infrastructure which of the below-mentioned options will help achieve this setup?

A. Host the log files on EBS with PIOPS which will have higher I/O.
B. Host logging and the app server on separate servers such that they are both in the same zone.
C. Host logging and the app server on the same instance so that the network latency will be shorter.
D. Create a separate module for logging and using SQS compartmentalize the module such that all calls to logging are asynchronous.

Correct Answer: D

Explanation: The organization can always launch multiple EC2 instances in the same region across multiple AZs for HA and DR. The AWS architecture practice recommends compartmentalizing the functionality such that they can both run in parallel without affecting the performance of the main application.

In this scenario, logging takes a longer time due to the large size of the log file. Thus, it is recommended that the organization should separate them out and make separate
modules and make asynchronous calls among them. This way the application can scale as per the requirement and the performance will not bear the impact of logging.

Reference:
http://www.awsarchitectureblog.com/2014/03/aws-and-compartmentalization.html

QUESTION 3

A user is planning to host a web server as well as an app server on a single EC2 instance which is a part of the public subnet of a VPC.

How can the user setup have two separate public IPs and separate security groups for both the application as well as the webserver?

A. Launch VPC with two separate subnets and make the instance a part of both the subnets.
B. Launch a VPC instance with two network interfaces. Assign a separate security group and elastic IP to them.
C. Launch a VPC instance with two network interfaces. Assign a separate security group to each and AWS will assign a separate public IP to them.
D. Launch a VPC with ELB such that it redirects requests to separate VPC instances of the public subnet.

Correct Answer: B

Explanation:
If you need to host multiple websites (with different IPs) on a single EC2 instance, the following is the
suggested method from AWS.

Launch a VPC instance with two network interfaces.

Assign elastic IPs from the VPC EIP pool to those interfaces (Because, when the user has attached more than one network interface with an instance, AWS cannot assign public IPs to them.) Assign separate Security Groups if separate Security Groups are needed This scenario also helps for operating network appliances, such as firewalls or load balancers that have multiple private IP addresses for each network interface.

Reference:
http://docs.aws.amazon.com/AWSEC2/latest/UserGuide/MultipleIP.html

QUESTION 4

A company is running an application on several Amazon EC2 instances in an Auto Scaling group behind an Application Load Balancer. The load on the application varies throughout the day, and EC2 instances are scaled in and out on a regular basis.

Log files from the EC2 instances are copied to a central Amazon S3 bucket every 15 minutes. The security team discovers that log files are missing from some of the terminated EC2 instances.

Which set of actions will ensure that log files are copied to the central S3 bucket from the terminated EC2 instances?

A. Create a script to copy log files to Amazon S3, and store the script in a file on the EC2 instance. Create an Auto Scaling lifecycle hook and an Amazon EventBridge (Amazon CloudWatch Events) rule to detect lifecycle events from the Auto Scaling group. Invoke an AWS Lambda function on the autoscaling: EC2_INSTANCE_TERMINATING transition to send ABANDON to the Auto Scaling group to prevent termination run the script to copy the log files, and terminate the instance using the AWS SDK.

B. Create an AWS Systems Manager document with a script to copy log files to Amazon S3. Create an Auto Scaling lifecycle hook and an Amazon EventBridge (Amazon CloudWatch Events) rule to detect lifecycle events from the Auto Scaling group. Invoke an AWS Lambda function on the autoscaling: EC2_INSTANCE_TERMINATING transition to calling the AWS Systems Manager API SendCommand operation to run the document to copy the log files and send CONTINUE to the Auto Scaling group to terminate the instance.

C. Change the log delivery rate to every 5 minutes. Create a script to copy log files to Amazon S3, and add the script to EC2 instance user data Create an Amazon EventBridge (Amazon CloudWatch Events) rule to detect EC2 instance termination. Invoke an AWS Lambda function from the EventBridge (CloudWatch Events) rule that uses the AWS CLI to run the user-data script to copy the log files and terminate the instance.

D. Create an AWS Systems Manager document with a script to copy log files to Amazon S3. Create an Auto Scaling lifecycle hook that publishes a message to an Amazon Simple Notification Service (Amazon SNS) topic. From the SNS a notification call the AWS Systems Manager API SendCommand operation to run the document to copy the log files and send ABANDON to the Auto Scaling group to terminate the instance.

Correct Answer: D

Reference: https://docs.aws.amazon.com/autoscaling/ec2/userguide/configuring-lifecycle-hooknotifications.html

QUESTION 5

What is the default maximum number of VPCs allowed per region?

A. 5
B. 10
C. 100
D. 15

Correct Answer: A

Explanation:
The maximum number of VPCs allowed per region is 5.

Reference:
http://docs.aws.amazon.com/AmazonVPC/latest/UserGuide/VPC_Appendix_Limits.html

QUESTION 6

A user is trying to create a vault in AWS Glacier. The user wants to enable notifications.
In which of the below-mentioned options can the user enable the notifications from the AWS console?

A. Glacier does not support the AWS console
B. Archival Upload Complete
C. Vault Upload Job Complete
D. Vault Inventory Retrieval Job Complete

Correct Answer: D

Explanation:
From the AWS console, the user can configure to have notifications sent to Amazon Simple Notifications Service (SNS). The user can select specific jobs that, on completion, will trigger the notifications such as Vault Inventory Retrieval Job Complete and Archive Retrieval Job Complete.

Reference:
http://docs.aws.amazon.com/amazonglacier/latest/dev/configuring-notifications-console.html

QUESTION 7

A company has several Amazon EC2 instances to both public and private subnets within a VPC that is not connected to the corporate network.

A security group associated with the EC2 instances allows the company to use the Windows remote desktop protocol (RDP) over the internet to access the instances. The security team has noticed connection attempts from unknown sources. The company wants to implement a more secure solution to access the EC2 instances.

Which strategy should a solutions architect implement?

A. Deploy a Linux bastion host on the corporate network that has access to all instances in the VPC.
B. Deploy AWS Systems Manager Agent on the EC2 instances. Access the EC2 instances using Session Manager restricting access to users with permission.
C. Deploy a Linux bastion host with an Elastic IP address in the public subnet. Allow access to the bastion host from 0.0.0.0/0.
D. Establish a Site-to-Site VPN connecting the corporate network to the VPC. Update the security groups to allow access from the corporate network only.

Correct Answer: A

QUESTION 8

A group of research institutions and hospitals are in a partnership to study 2 PBs of genomic data. The institute that owns the data stores it in an Amazon S3 bucket and updates it regularly. The institute would like to give all of the organizations in the partnership read access to the data. All members of the partnership are extremely cost-conscious, and the institute that owns the account with the S3 bucket is concerned about covering the costs for requests and data transfers from Amazon S3.

Which solution allows for secure data sharing without causing the institute that owns the bucket to assume all the costs for S3 requests and data transfers?

A. Ensure that all organizations in the partnership have AWS accounts. In the account with the S3 bucket, create a cross-account role for each account in the partnership that allows read access to the data. Have the organizations assume and use that read role when accessing the data.

B. Ensure that all organizations in the partnership have AWS accounts. Create a bucket policy on the bucket that owns the data. The policy should allow the accounts in the partnership to read access to the bucket. Enable Requester Pays on the bucket. Have the organizations use their AWS credentials when accessing the data.

C. Ensure that all organizations in the partnership have AWS accounts. Configure buckets in each of the accounts with a bucket policy that allows the institute that owns the data the ability to write to the bucket. Periodically sync the data from the institute\’s account to the other organizations. Have the organizations use their AWS credentials when accessing the data using their accounts.

D. Ensure that all organizations in the partnership have AWS accounts. In the account with the S3 bucket, create a cross-account role for each account in the partnership that allows read access to the data. Enable Requester Pays on the bucket. Have the organizations assume and use that read role when accessing the data.

Correct Answer: A

QUESTION 9

A company has used infrastructure as code (IaC) to provision a set of two Amazon EC2 instances. The instances have remained the same for several years.

The company\’s business has grown rapidly in the past few months. In response, the company\’s operations team has implemented an Auto Scaling group to manage the sudden increases in traffic. Company policy requires a monthly installation of security updates on all operating systems that are running.

The most recent security update required a reboot. As a result, the Auto Scaling group terminated the instances and replaced them with new, unpatched instances.

Which combination of steps should a solutions architect recommend to avoid a recurrence of this issue? (Choose two.)

A. Modify the Auto Scaling group by setting the Update policy to target the oldest launch configuration for replacement.

B. Create a new Auto Scaling group before the next patch maintenance. During the maintenance window, patch both groups and reboot the instances.

C. Create an Elastic Load Balancer in front of the Auto Scaling group. Configure monitoring to ensure that target group health checks return healthy after the Auto Scaling group replaces the terminated instances.

D. Create automation scripts to patch an AMI, update the launch configuration, and invoke an Auto Scaling instance refresh.

E. Create an Elastic Load Balancer in front of the Auto Scaling group. Configure termination protection on the instances.

Correct Answer: AC

Reference: https://medium.com/@endofcake/using-terraform-for-zero-downtime-updates-of-an-autoscaling-group-inaws-60faca582664 https://docs.aws.amazon.com/autoscaling/ec2/userguide/as-add-elb-healthcheck.html

QUESTION 10

In Amazon Cognito what is a silent push notification?

A. It is a push message that is received by your application on a user\\’s device that will not be seen by the user.
B. It is a push message that is received by your application on a user\\’s device that will return the user\\’s geolocation.
C. It is a push message that is received by your application on a user\\’s device that will not be heard by the user.
D. It is a push message that is received by your application on a user\\’s device that will return the user\\’s authentication credentials.

Correct Answer: A

Explanation:
Amazon Cognito uses the Amazon Simple Notification Service (SNS) to send silent push notifications to devices. A silent push notification is a push message that is received by your application on a user\\’s device that will not be seen by the user.

Reference:
http://aws.amazon.com/cognito/faqs/

QUESTION 11

A solutions architect is implementing federated access to AWS for users of the company\’s mobile application. Due to regulatory and security requirements, the application must use a custom-built solution for authenticating users and must use IAM roles for authorization.

Which of the following actions would enable authentication and authorization and satisfy the requirements? (Choose two.)

A. Use a custom-built SAML-compatible solution for authentication and AWS SSO for authorization.
B. Create a custom-built LDAP connector using Amazon API Gateway and AWS Lambda for authentication. Store
authorization tokens in Amazon DynamoDB, and validate authorization requests using another Lambda function that reads the credentials from DynamoDB.
C. Use a custom-built OpenID Connect-compatible solution with AWS SSO for authentication and authorization.
D. Use a custom-built SAML-compatible solution that uses LDAP for authentication and uses a SAML assertion to perform authorization to the IAM identity provider.
E. Use a custom-built OpenID Connect-compatible solution for authentication and use Amazon Cognito for authorization.

Correct Answer: AC

QUESTION 12

A company has a complex web application that leverages Amazon CloudFront for global scalability and performance. Over time, users report that the web application is slowing down.

The company\\’s operations team reports that the CloudFront cache hit ratio has been dropping steadily.

The cache metrics report indicates that query strings on some URLs are inconsistently ordered and are
specified sometimes in mixed-case letters and sometimes in lowercase letters.

Which set of actions should the solutions architect take to increase the cache hit ratio as quickly as possible?

A. Deploy a [email protected] function to sort parameters by name and force them to be lowercase. Select the CloudFront viewer request trigger to invoke the function.
B. Update the CloudFront distribution to disable caching based on query string parameters.
C. Deploy a reverse proxy after the load balancer to post-process the emitted URLs in the application to force the URL strings to be lowercase.
D. Update the CloudFront distribution to specify case-insensitive query string processing.

Correct Answer: B

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QUESTION 1

A company is operating an open-source software platform that is internet-facing. The legacy software platform no longer receives security updates. The software platform operates using Amazon route 53 weighted loads balancing to send traffic to two Amazon EC2 instances that connect to an Amazon POS cluster a recent report suggests this software platform is vulnerable to SQL injection attacks.

with samples of attacks provided. The company\\’s security engineer must secure this system against SQL injection attacks within 24 hours. The secure, engineer\\’s solution involves the least amount of effort and maintains normal operations during implementation. What should the security engineer do to meet these requirements?

A. Create an Application Load Balancer with the existing EC2 instances as a target group Creates an AWS WAF web ACL containing rules mat protects the application from this attach. then apply it to the ALB Test to ensure my vulnerability has been mitigated, then redirect thee Route 53 records to point to the ALB Update security groups on the EC 2 instances to prevent direct access from the internet

B. Create an Amazon CloudFront distribution specifying one EC2 instance as an origin Create an AWS WAF web ACL containing rules that protect the application from this attack, then apply it to my distribution Test to ensure the vulnerability has been mitigated, then redirect the Route 53 records to point to CloudFront

C. Obtain me the latest source code for the platform and make ire necessary updates Test my updated code to ensure that the vulnerability has been irrigated, then deploy me a patched version of the platform to the EC2 instances

D. Update the security group mat is attached to the EC2 instances, removing access from the internet to the TCP port used by the SQL database Create an AWS WAF web ACL containing rules mat protect my application from this attack, men apply it to the EC2 instances Test to ensure my vulnerability has been mitigated. then restore the security group to my original setting

Correct Answer: A

QUESTION 2

A company\\’s security engineer has been tasked with restricting a contractor\\’s 1 AM account access to the company\\’s Amazon EC2 console without providing access to any other AWS services The contractor 1 AM account must not be able to gain access to any other AWS service, even if the 1 AM account rs assigned additional permissions based on 1 AM group membership What should the security engineer do to meet these requirements\\’\\’

A. Create a mime 1 AM user policy that allows for Amazon EC2 access for the contractor\\’s 1 AM user
B. Create a 1 AM permissions boundary policy that allows Amazon EC2 access Associate the contractor\\’s 1 AM account with the 1 AM permissions boundary policy
C. Create a 1 AM group with an attached policy that allows for Amazon EC2 access Associate the contractor\\’s 1 AM account with the 1 AM group
D. Create a 1 AM role that allows for EC2 and explicitly denies all other services Instruct the contractor to always assume this role

Correct Answer: B

QUESTION 3

A company has deployed a custom DNS server in AWS. The Security Engineer wants to ensure that Amazon EC2 instances cannot use the Amazon-provided DNS.

How can the Security Engineer block access to the Amazon-provided DNS in the VPC?

A. Deny access to the Amazon DNS IP within all security groups.
B. Add a rule to all network access control lists that deny access to the Amazon DNS IP.
C. Add a route to all route tables that black holes traffic to the Amazon DNS IP.
D. Disable DNS resolution within the VPC configuration.

Correct Answer: D

https://docs.aws.amazon.com/vpc/latest/userguide/vpc-dns.html

QUESTION 4

Your company has an EC2 Instance hosted in AWS. This EC2 Instance hosts an application. Currently, this application is experiencing a number of issues. Do you need to inspect the network packets to see the type of error that is occurring?

Which one of the below steps can help address this issue?
Please select:

A. Use the VPC Flow Logs.
B. Use a network monitoring tool provided by an AWS partner.
C. Use another instance. Setup a port to “promiscuous mode” and sniff the traffic to analyze the packets.
D. Use Cloudwatch metric

Correct Answer: B

QUESTION 5

A developer is building a serverless application hosted on AWS that uses Amazon Redshift as a data store. The application has a separate module for reading/writing and read-only functionality. The modules need their own database users for compliance reasons.

Which combination of steps should a security engineer implement to grant appropriate access? (Choose two.)

A. Configure cluster security groups for each application module to control access to database users that are required for read-only and read-write.

B. Configure a VPC endpoint for Amazon Redshift. Configure an endpoint policy that maps database users to each application module, and allows access to the tables that are required for read-only and read/write.

C. Configure an IAM policy for each module. Specify the ARN of an Amazon Redshift database user that allows the GetClusterCredentials API call.

D. Create local database users for each module.

E. Configure an IAM policy for each module. Specify the ARN of an IAM user that allows the GetClusterCredentials API call.

Correct Answer: AD

QUESTION 6

A company has an encrypted Amazon S3 bucket. An Application Developer has an IAM policy that allows access to the S3 bucket, but the Application Developer is unable to access objects within the bucket.

What is a possible cause of the issue?

A. The S3 ACL for the S3 bucket fails to explicitly grant access to the Application Developer
B. The AWS KMS key for the S3 bucket fails to list the Application Developer as an administrator
C. The S3 bucket policy fails to explicitly grant access to the Application Developer
D. The S3 bucket policy explicitly denies access to the Application Developer

Correct Answer: C

QUESTION 7

A company has a web-based application using Amazon CloudFront and running on Amazon Elastic Container Service (Amazon ECS) behind an Application Load Balancer (ALB).

The ALB is terminating TLS and balancing load across ECS service tasks A security engineer needs to design a solution to ensure that application content is accessible only through CloudFront and that it is never accessed directly.

How should the security engineer build the MOST secure solution?

A. Add an origin custom header Set the viewer protocol policy to HTTP and HTTPS Set the origin protocol pokey to HTTPS only Update the application to validate the CloudFront custom header

B. Add an origin custom header Set the viewer protocol policy to HTTPS only Set the origin protocol policy to match viewer Update the application to validate the CloudFront custom header.

C. Add an origin custom header Set the viewer protocol policy to redirect HTTP to HTTPS Set the origin protocol policy to HTTP only Update the application to validate the CloudFront custom header.

D. Add an origin custom header Set the viewer protocol policy to redirect HTTP to HTTPS.Set the origin protocol policy to HTTPS only Update the application to validate the CloudFront custom header

Correct Answer: D

QUESTION 8

A company needs to retain tog data archives for several years to be compliant with regulations. The tog data is no longer used but It must be retained.

What Is the MOST secure and cost-effective solution to meet these requirements?

A. Archive the data to Amazon S3 and apply a restrictive bucket policy to deny the s3 DeleteOotect API

B. Archive the data to Amazon S3 Glacier and apply a Vault Lock policy

C. Archive the data to Amazon S3 and replicate it to a second bucket in a second AWS Region Choose the S3 StandardInfrequent Access (S3 Standard-1A) storage class and apply a restrictive bucket policy to deny the s3 DeleteObject API

D. Migrate the log data to a 16 T8 Amazon Elastic Block Store (Amazon EBS) volume Create a snapshot of the EBS volume

Correct Answer: B

QUESTION 9

You have an S3 bucket defined in AWS. You want to ensure that you encrypt the data before sending it across the wire.

What is the best way to achieve this?
Please select:

A. Enable server-side encryption for the S3 bucket. This request will ensure that the data is encrypted first.
B. Use the AWS Encryption CLI to encrypt the data first
C. Use a Lambda function to encrypt the data before sending it to the S3 bucket.
D. Enable client encryption for the bucket

Correct Answer: B

One can use the AWS Encryption CLI to encrypt the data before sending it across to the S3 bucket. Options A and C are invalid because this would still mean that data is transferred in plain text Option D is invalid because you cannot just enable client-side encryption for the S3 bucket For more information on Encrypting and Decrypting data, please visit the
below URL:

https://aws.amazonxom/blogs/securirv/how4o-encrvpt-and-decrypt-your-data-with-the-aws-encryption-cl

The correct answer is: Use the AWS Encryption CLI to encrypt the data first

QUESTION 10

In your LAMP application, you have some developers that say they would like access to your logs. However, since you are using an AWS Auto Scaling group, your instances are constantly being re-created. What would you do to make sure that these developers can access these log files? Choose the correct answer from the options below

Please select:

A. Give only the necessary access to the Apache servers so that the developers can gain access to the log files.

B. Give root access to your Apache servers to the developers.

C. Give read-only access to your developers to the Apache servers.

D. Set up a central logging server that you can use to archive your logs; archive these logs to an S3 bucket for developer access.

Correct Answer: D

One important security aspect is to never give access to actual servers, hence Option A.B and C are just totally wrong from a security perspective. The best option is to have a central logging server that can be used to archive logs.

These logs can then be stored in S3. Options A, B, and C are all invalid because you should not give access to the developers on the Apache se For more information on S3, please refer to the below link https://aws.amazon.com/documentation/s3

The correct answer is: Set up a central logging server that you can use to archive your logs; archive these logs to an S3 bucket for developer access. Submit your Feedback/Queries to our Experts

QUESTION 11

An organization is using AWS CloudTrail, Amazon CloudWatch Logs, and Amazon CloudWatch to send alerts when new access keys are created. However, the alerts are no longer appearing in the Security Operations mail box.

Which of the following actions would resolve this issue?

A. In CloudTrail, verify that the trail logging bucket has a log prefix configured.
B. In Amazon SNS, determine whether the “Account spend limit” has been reached for this alert.
C. In SNS, ensure that the subscription used by these alerts has not been deleted.
D. In CloudWatch, verify that the alarm threshold “consecutive periods” value is equal to, or greater than 1.

Correct Answer: C

QUESTION 12

During a recent security audit, it was discovered that multiple teams in a large organization have placed restricted data in multiple Amazon S3 buckets, and the data may have been exposed.

The auditor has requested that the organization identify all possible objects that contain personally identifiable information (PII) and then determine whether this information has been accessed.
What solution will allow the Security team to complete this request?

A. Using Amazon Athena, query the impacted S3 buckets by using the PII query identifier function. Then, create a new Amazon CloudWatch metric for Amazon S3 object access to alert when the objects are accessed.

B. Enable Amazon Macie on the S3 buckets that were impacted, then perform data classification. For identified objects that contain PII, use the research function for auditing AWS CloudTrail logs and S3 bucket logs for getting operations.

C. Enable Amazon GuardDuty and enable the PII rule set on the S3 buckets that were impacted, then perform data classification. Using the PII findings report from GuardDuty, query the S3 bucket logs by using Athena for getting operations.

D. Enable Amazon Inspector on the S3 buckets that were impacted, then perform data classification. For identified objects that contain PII, query the S3 bucket logs by using Athena for getting operations.

Correct Answer: B

QUESTION 13

Your IT Security department has mandated that all data on EBS volumes created for underlying EC2 Instances need to be encrypted. Which of the following can help achieve this?

Please select:

A. AWS KMS API
B. AWS Certificate Manager
C. API Gateway with STS
D. IAM Access Key

Correct Answer: A

The AWS Documentation mentions the following on AWS KMS AWS Key Management Service (AWS KMS) is a managed service that makes it easy for you to create and control the encryption keys used to encrypt your data.

AWS KMS is integrated with other AWS services including Amazon Elastic Block Store (Amazon EBS), Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3), Amazon Redshift Amazon Elastic Transcoder, Amazon WorkMail, Amazon Relational Database Service (Amazon RDS), and others to make it simple to encrypt your data with encryption keys that you manage Option B is incorrect –

The AWS Certificate Manager can be used to generate SSL certificates that can be used to encrypt traffic transit but not at rest Option C is incorrect is again used for issuing tokens when using API gateway for traffic in transit.

Option D is used for secure access to EC2 Instances For more information on AWS KMS, please visit the following URL: https://docs.aws.amazon.com/kms/latest/developereuide/overview.htmll

The correct answer is: AWS KMS API

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QUESTION 1

A company needs guaranteed Amazon EC2 capacity in three specific Availability Zones in a specific AWS Region for an upcoming event that will last 1 week.

What should the company do to guarantee the EC2 capacity?

A. Purchase Reserved Instances that specify the Region needed.
B. Create an On-Demand Capacity Reservation that specifies the Region needed.
C. Purchase Reserved Instances that specify the Region and three Availability Zones needed.
D. Create an On-Demand Capacity Reservation that specifies the Region and three Availability Zones needed.

Correct Answer: D

QUESTION 2

A company hosts an application used to upload files to an Amazon S3 bucket Once uploaded, the files are processed to extract metadata, which takes less than 5 seconds. The volume and frequency of the uploads vanes from a few files each hour to hundreds of concurrent uploads.

The company has asked a solutions architect to design a cost-effective architecture that will meet these requirements. What should the solutions architect recommend?

A. Configure AWS CloudTrail trails to log S3 API calls Use AWS AppSync to process the files
B. Configure an object-created event notification within the S3 bucket to invoke an AWS Lambda function to process the files.
C. Configure Amazon Kinesis Data Streams to process and send data to Amazon S3 Invoke an AWS Lambda function to process the files
D. Configure an Amazon Simple Notification Service (Amazon SNS) topic to process the files uploaded to Amazon S3. Invoke an AWS Lambda function to process the files.

Correct Answer: B

QUESTION 3

A solution architect is designing a solution that involves orchestrating a series of Amazon Elastic Container Service (Amazon ECS) task types running on Amazon EC2 instances that are part of an ECS cluster. The output and state data for all tasks need to be stored.

The amount of data output by each task is approximately 10 MB, and there could be hundreds of tasks running at a time. The system should be optimized for high-frequency reading and writing. As old outputs are archived and deleted the storage size is not expected to exceed 1 TB. Which storage solution should the solution architect recommend?

A. An Amazon DynamoDB table accessible by all ECS cluster instances.
B. An Amazon Elastic File System (Amazon EFS) with Provisioned Throughput mode.
C. An Amazon Elastic File System (Amazon EFS) file system with Bursting Throughput mode.
D. An Amazon Elastic Block Store (Amazon EBS) volume mounted to the ECS cluster instances.

Correct Answer: C

QUESTION 4

A company is running a multi-tier e-commerce web application In the AWS Cloud. The application runs on Amazon EC2 Instances with an Amazon RDS MySQL Mutt>AZ DB instance. Amazon RDS is configured with the latest generation instance with 2,000 GB of storage in an Amazon EBS General Purpose SSD (gp2) volume.

The database performance impacts the application during periods of high demand. After analyzing the logs in Amazon CloudWatch Logs, a database administrator finds that the application performance always degrades when the number of reading and writing IOPS is higher than 6.000 What should a solutions architect do to improve the application performance?

A. Replace the volume with a Magnetic volume
B. Increase the number of IOPS on the gp2 volume
C. Replace the volume with a Provisioned IOPS (PIOPS) volume.
D. Replace the 2,000 GB gp2 volume with two 1,000 GBgp2 volumes.

Correct Answer: C

QUESTION 5

A company needs to connect its on-premises data center network to a new VPC. The data center network has a 100 Mbps symmetrical Internet connection. An application that is running on-premises will transfer multiple gigabytes of data each day. The application will use an Amazon Kinesis Data Firehose delivery stream for processing

What should a solutions architect recommend for maximum performance?

A. Create a VPC peering connection between the on-premises network and the VPC Configure routing for the on-premises network to use the VPC peering connection.

B. Procure an AWS Snowball Edge Storage Optimized device. After several days\\’ worth of data has accumulated, copy the data to the device and ship the device to AWS for expedited transfer to Kinesis Data Firehose Repeat as needed

C. Create an AWS Site-to-Site VPN connection between the on-premises network and the VPC. Configure BGP routing between the customer gateway and the virtual private gateway. Use the VPN connection to send the data from on-premises to Kinesis Data Firehose.

D. Use AWS PrivateLink to create an interface VPC endpoint for Kinesis Data Firehose in the VPC. Set up a 1 Gbps AWS Direct Connect connection between the on-premises network and AWS Use the PrivateLink endpoint to send the data from on-premises to Kinesis Data Firehose.

Correct Answer: D

QUESTION 6

A company is managing health records on-premises. The company must keep these records indefinitely, disable any modifications to the records once they are stored, and granularly audit access at all levels.

The chief technology officer (CTO) is concerned because there are already millions of records not being used by any application, and the current infrastructure is running out of space The CTO has requested a solutions architect design a solution to move existing data and support future records

Which services can the solutions architect recommend to meet these requirements\’?

A. Use AWS DataSync to move existing data to AWS. Use Amazon S3 to store existing and new data Enable Amazon S3 object lock and enable AWS CloudTrail with data events.

B. Use AWS Storage Gateway to move existing data to AWS Use Amazon S3 to store existing and new data. Enable Amazon S3 object lock and enable AWS CloudTrail with management events.

C. Use AWS DataSync to move existing data to AWS Use Amazon S3 to store existing and new data Enable Amazon S3 object lock and enable AWS CloudTrail with management events.

D. Use AWS Storage Gateway to move existing data to AWS Use Amazon Elastic Block Store (Amazon EBS) to store existing and new data Enable Amazon S3 object lock and enable Amazon S3 server access logging

Correct Answer: A

QUESTION 7

A company is designing a shared storage solution for a gaming application that is hosted in the AWS Cloud. The company needs the ability to use SMB clients to access data. The solution must be fully managed.

Which AWS solution meets these requirements?

A. Create an AWS DataSync task that shares the data as a mountable file system. Mount the file system to the application server.

B. Create an Amazon EC2 Windows instance. Install and configure a Windows file share role on the instance. Connect the application server to the file share.

C. Create an Amazon FSx for Windows File Server file system. Attach the file system to the origin server. Connect the application server to the file system.

D. Create an Amazon S3 bucket. Assign an IAM role to the application to grant access to the S3 bucket. Mount the S3 bucket to the application server.

Correct Answer: C

Reference: https://aws.amazon.com/fsx/windows/

QUESTION 8

A company has two applications it wants to migrate to AWS. Both applications process a large set of files by accessing the same files at the same time. Both applications need to read the files with low latency. Which architecture should the solutions architect recommend for this situation?

A. Configure two AWS Lambda functions to run the applications. Create an Amazon EC2 instance with an instance store volume to store the data.

B. Configure two AWS Lambda functions to run the applications. Create an Amazon EC2 instance with an Amazon Elastic Block Store (Amazon EBS) volume to store the data.

C. Configure one memory-optimized Amazon EC2 instance to run both applications simultaneously. Create an Amazon Elastic Block Store (Amazon EBS) volume with Provisioned IOPS to store the data.

D. Configure two Amazon EC2 instances to run both applications. Configure Amazon Elastic File System (Amazon EFS) with General Purpose performance mode and Bursting Throughput mode to store the data.

Correct Answer: D

QUESTION 9

A solutions architect is redesigning a monolithic application to be a loosely coupled application composed of two microservices: Microservice A and Microservice B Microservice A places messages in a mam Amazon Simple Queue Service (Amazon SOS) queue for Microservice B to consume When Microservice B fails to process a message after four retries, the message needs to be removed from the queue and stored for further investigation.

What should the solutions architect do to meet these requirements?

A. Create an SQS dead-letter queue Microservice B adds failed messages to that queue after it receives and fails to process the message four times.

B. Create an SQS dead-letter queue Configure the main SQS queue to deliver messages to the dead-letter queue after the message has been received four times.

C. Create an SQS queue for failed messages Microservice A adds failed messages to that queue after Microservice B receives and fails to process the message four times.

D. Create an SQS queue for failed messages. Configure the SQS queue for failed messages to pull messages from the main SQS queue after the original message has been received four times.

Correct Answer: B

https://docs.aws.amazon.com/AWSSimpleQueueService/latest/SQSDeveloperGuide/sqs-dead-letterqueues.html#sqsdead-letter-queues-how-they-work

QUESTION 10

A company has an application running on Amazon EC2 instances in a private subnet. The application needs to store and retrieve data in Amazon S3. To reduce costs, the company wants to configure its AWS resources in a cost-effective manner.

How should the company accomplish this?

A. Deploy a NAT gateway to access the S3 buckets
B. Deploy AWS Storage Gateway to access the S3 buckets
C. Deploy an S3 gateway endpoint to access the S3 buckets
D. Deploy an S3 interface endpoint to access the S3 buckets.

Correct Answer: B

QUESTION 11

A development team is creating an event-based application that uses AWS Lambda functions. Events will be generated when files are added to an Amazon S3 bucket. The development team currently has Amazon Simple Notification Service (Amazon SNS) configured as the event target from Amazon S3.

What should a solution architect do to process the events from Amazon S3 in a scalable way?

A. Create an SNS subscription that processes the event in Amazon Elastic Container Service (Amazon ECS) before the event runs in Lambda.

B. Create an SNS subscription that processes the event in Amazon Elastic Kubernetes Service (Amazon EKS) before the event runs in Lambda.

C. Create an SNS subscription that sends the event to AWS Server Migration Service (AWS SQS). Configure the SQS queue to trigger a Lambda function.

D. Create an SNS subscription that sends the event to AWS Server Migration Service (AWS SMS). Configure the Lambda function to poll from the SMS event

Correct Answer: D

QUESTION 12

A company is running a batch application on Amazon EC2 instances The application consists of a backend with multiple Amazon RDS databases, The application is causing a high number of reads on the databases A solutions architect must reduce the number of database reads while ensuring high availability.

What should the solutions architect do to meet this requirement?

A. Add Amazon RDS read replicas.
B. Use Amazon ElastiCache for Redis
C. Use Amazon Route 53 DNS caching
D. Use Amazon ElastiCache for Memcached

Correct Answer: A

QUESTION 13

A company Is seeing access requests by some suspicious IP addresses. The security team discovers the requests are horn different IP addresses under the same CIDR range. What should a solutions architect recommend to the team?

A. Add a rule in the inbound table of the security group to deny the traffic from that CIDR range.
B. Add a rule In the outbound table of the security group to deny the traffic from that CIDR range
C. Add a deny rule in the Inbound table of the network ACL with a lower rule number than other rules.
D. Add a deny rule in the outbound table of the network ACL with a tower rule number than other rules.

Correct Answer: C

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QUESTION 1

An application has the following requirements:

1. Performance efficiency of seconds with up to a minute of latency.
2. The data storage size may grow up to thousands of terabytes.
3. Per-message sizes may vary between 100 KB and 100 MB.
4. Data can be stored as key/value stores supporting eventual consistency.

What is the MOST cost-effective AWS service to meet these requirements?

A. Amazon DynamoDB
B. Amazon S3
C. Amazon RDS (with a MySQL engine)
D. Amazon ElastiCache

Correct Answer: A

Reference: https://aws.amazon.com/nosql/key-value/

QUESTION 2

A developer is building an application that processes a stream of user-supplied data. The data stream must be consumed by multiple Amazon EC2 based processing applications in parallel and in real time. Each processor must be able to resume without losing data if there is a service interruption.

The Application Architect plans to add other processors in the near future, and wants to minimize the amount data duplication involved.

Which solution will satisfy these requirements?

A. Publish the data to Amazon SQS.
B. Publish the data to Amazon Kinesis Data Firehose.
C. Publish the data to Amazon CloudWatch Events.
D. Publish the data to Amazon Kinesis Data Streams.

Correct Answer: D

Reference: https://aws.amazon.com/kinesis/data-streams/faqs/

QUESTION 3

A Developer has an application that can upload tens of thousands of objects per second to Amazon S3 in parallel within a single AWS account. As part of new requirements, data stored in S3 must use server side encryption with AWS KMS (SSE-KMS). After creating this change, performance of the application is slower.

Which of the following is MOST likely the cause of the application latency?

A. Amazon S3 throttles the rate at which uploaded objects can be encrypted using Customer Master Keys.
B. The AWS KMS API calls limit is less than needed to achieve the desired performance.
C. The client encryption of the objects is using a poor algorithm.
D. KMS requires that an alias be used to create an independent display name that can be mapped to a CMK.

Correct Answer: B

https://aws.amazon.com/about-aws/whats-new/2018/08/aws-key-management-service-increases-apirequests-persecond-limits/

KMS API access limit is 10k/sec in us-east and some others and 5.5k/sec for the rest of the regions. Client can request this limit to be changed.

QUESTION 4

A legacy service has an XML-based SOAP interface. The Developer wants to expose the functionality of the service to external clients with the Amazon API Gateway. Which technique will accomplish this?

A. Create a RESTful API with the API Gateway; transform the incoming JSON into a valid XML message for the SOAP interface using mapping templates.
B. Create a RESTful API with the API Gateway; pass the incoming JSON to the SOAP interface through an Application Load Balancer.
C. Create a RESTful API with the API Gateway; pass the incoming XML to the SOAP interface through an Application Load Balancer.
D. Create a RESTful API with the API Gateway; transform the incoming XML into a valid message for the SOAP interface using mapping templates.

Correct Answer: A

https://blog.codecentric.de/en/2016/12/serverless-soap-legacy-api-integration-java-aws-lambda-aws-apigateway/

QUESTION 5

A Developer decides lo store highly secure data in Amazon S3 and wants to implement server-side encryption (SSF) with granular control of who can access the master key Company policy requires that the master key be created, rotated, and disabled easily when needed, all for security reasons. Which solution should be used to moot these requirements?

A. SSE with Amazon S3 managed keys (SSE-S3)
B. SSFE with AWS KMS managed keys (SSE KMS)
C. SSE with AWS Secrets Manager
D. SSE with customer provided encryption keys

Correct Answer: B

QUESTION 6

A Developer must trigger an AWS Lambda function based on the item lifecycle activity in an Amazon DynamoDB table.
How can the Developer create the solution?

A. Enable a DynamoDB stream that publishes an Amazon SNS message. Trigger the Lambda function synchronously from the SNS message.
B. Enable a DynamoDB stream that publishes an SNS message. Trigger the Lambda function asynchronously from the SNS message.
C. Enable a DynamoDB stream, and trigger the Lambda function synchronously from the stream.
D. Enable a DynamoDB stream, and trigger the Lambda function asynchronously from the stream.

Correct Answer: C

https://docs.aws.amazon.com/lambda/latest/dg/with-ddb.html

QUESTION 7

A developer is building an application that will run on Amazon EC2 instances. The application needs to connect to an Amazon DynamoDB table to read and write records. The security team must periodically rotate access keys.

Which approach will satisfy these requirements?

A. Create an IAM role with read and write access to the DynamoDB table. Generate access keys for the user and store the access keys in the application as environment variables.
B. Create an IAM user with read and write access to the DynamoDB table. Store the user name and password in the application and generate access keys using an AWS SDK.
C. Create an IAM role, configure read and write access for the DynamoDB table, and attach to the EC2 instances.
D. Create an IAM user with read and write access to the DynamoDB table. Generate access keys for the user and store the access keys in the application as a credentials file.

Correct Answer: D

QUESTION 8

A photo sharing website gets millions of new images every week The images are stored in Amazon S3 under a formatted date prefix A developer wants to move images to a few S3 buckets for analysis and further processing Images are not required to be moved in real time What is the MOST efficient method for performing this task?

A. Use S3 PutObject events to Invoke AWS Lambda Then Lambda will copy the files to the other objects
B. Create an AWS Lambda function that will pull a day of Images from the origin bucket and copy them to the other buckets.
C. Use S3 Batch Operations to create jobs for images to be copied to each Individual bucket.
D. Use Amazon EC2 to batch pull images from multiple days and copy them to the other buckets

Correct Answer: D

QUESTION 9

A Developer is building a serverless application using AWS Lambda and must create a REST API using an HTTP GET method.
What needs to be defined to meet this requirement? (Choose two.)

A. A [email protected] function
B. An Amazon API Gateway with a Lambda function
C. An exposed GET method in an Amazon API Gateway
D. An exposed GET method in the Lambda function
E. An exposed GET method in Amazon Route 53

Correct Answer: BC

Reference: https://docs.aws.amazon.com/apigateway/latest/developerguide/apigateway-getting-startedwith-restapis.html

QUESTION 10

A Developer is writing a mobile application that allows users to view images from an S3 bucket. The users must be able to log in with their Amazon login, as well as Facebook?and/or Google?accounts.
How can the Developer provide this authentication functionality?

A. Use Amazon Cognito with web identity federation.
B. Use Amazon Cognito with SAML-based identity federation.
C. Use AWS IAM Access/Secret keys in the application code to allow Get* on the S3 bucket.
D. Use AWS STS AssumeRole in the application code and assume a role with Get* permissions on the S3 bucket.

Correct Answer: A

QUESTION 11

The upload of a 15 GB object to Amazon S3 fails. The error message reads: “Your proposed upload exceeds the maximum allowed object size.”
What technique will allow the Developer to upload this object?

A. Upload the object using the multi-part upload API.
B. Upload the object over an AWS Direct Connect connection.
C. Contact AWS Support to increase the object size limit.
D. Upload the object to another AWS region.

Correct Answer: A

https://docs.aws.amazon.com/AmazonS3/latest/dev/UploadingObjects.html

QUESTION 12

A Developer is receiving HTTP 400: ThrottlingException errors intermittently when calling the Amazon
CloudWatch API. When a call fails, no data is retrieved.
What best practice should first be applied to address this issue?

A. Contact AWS Support for a limit increase.
B. Use the AWS CLI to get the metrics
C. Analyze the applications and remove the API call
D. Retry the call with exponential backoff

Correct Answer: A

https://docs.aws.amazon.com/AmazonCloudWatch/latest/monitoring/cloudwatch_limits.html

QUESTION 13

A company requires that AWS Lambda functions written by developers log errors so system administrators can more effectively troubleshoot issues What should the developers implement to meet this need?

A. Publish errors to a dedicated Amazon SQS queue
B. Create an Amazon CloudWatch Events event to trigger based on certain Lambda events.
C. Report errors through logging statements in Lambda function code.
D. Set up an Amazon SNS topic that sends logging statements upon failure

Correct Answer: B

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QUESTION 1 #

Which resource cannot be defined in an Ansible Playbook?

A. Fact Gathering State
B. Host Groups
C. Inventory File
D. Variables

Correct Answer: C

Ansible\\’s inventory can only be specified on the command line, the Ansible configuration file, or in environment variables.

Reference: http://docs.ansible.com/ansible/intro_inventory.html

QUESTION 2 #

A retail company wants to use AWS Elastic Beanstalk to host its online sales website running on Java. Since this will be the production website, the CTO has the following requirements for the deployment strategy:

1. Zero downtime. While the deployment is ongoing, the current Amazon EC2 instances in service should remain in service. No deployment or any other action should be performed on the EC2 instances because they serve production traffic.

2. A new fleet of instances should be provisioned for deploying the new application version.

3. Once the new application version is deployed successfully in the new fleet of instances, the new instances should be placed in service and the old ones should be removed.

4. The rollback should be as easy as possible. If the new fleet of instances fails to deploy the new application version, they should be terminated and the current instances should continue serving traffic as normal.

5. The resources within the environment (EC2 Auto Scaling group, Elastic Load Balancing, Elastic Beanstalk DNS CNAME) should remain the same and no DNS change should be made.

Which deployment strategy will meet the requirements?

A. Use rolling deployments with a fixed amount of one instance at a time and set the healthy threshold to OK.

B. Use rolling deployments with an additional batch with a fixed amount of one instance at a time and set the healthy threshold to OK.

C. launch a new environment and deploy the new application version there, then perform a CNAME swap between environments.

D. Use immutable environment updates to meet all the necessary requirements.

Correct Answer: D

QUESTION 3 #

A social networking service runs a web API that allows its partners to search public posts. Post data is
stored in Amazon DynamoDB and indexed by AWS Lambda functions, with an Amazon ES domain storing the indexes and providing search functionality to the application.

The service needs to maintain full capacity during deployments and ensure that failed deployments do not cause downtime or reduce capacity or prevent subsequent deployments.

How can these requirements be met? (Choose two.)

A. Run the web application in AWS Elastic Beanstalk with the deployment policy set to All at Once. Deploy the Lambda functions, DynamoDB tables, and Amazon ES domain with an AWS CloudFormation template.

B. Deploy the web application, Lambda functions, DynamoDB tables, and Amazon ES domain in an AWS CloudFormation template. Deploy changes with an AWS CodeDeploy in-place deployment.

C. Run the web application in AWS Elastic Beanstalk with the deployment policy set to Immutable. Deploy the Lambda functions, DynamoDB tables, and Amazon ES domain with an AWS CloudFormation template.

D. Deploy the web application, Lambda functions, DynamoDB tables, and Amazon ES domain in an AWS CloudFormation template. Deploy changes with an AWS CodeDeploy blue/green deployment.
E. Run the web application in AWS Elastic Beanstalk with the deployment policy set to Rolling. Deploy the Lambda functions, DynamoDB tables, and Amazon ES domain with an AWS CloudFormation template.

Correct Answer: CD

QUESTION 4 #

A company is deploying a container-based application using AWS CodeBuild. The Security team mandates that all containers are scanned for vulnerabilities prior to deployment using a password-protected endpoint.

All sensitive information must be stored securely.
Which solution should be used to meet these requirements?

A. Encrypt the password using AWS KMS. Store the encrypted password in the buildspec.yml file as an environment variable under the variables mapping. Reference the environment variable to initiate scanning.

B. Import the password into an AWS CloudHSM key. Reference the CloudHSM key in the buildpec.yml file as an environment variable under the variables mapping. Reference the environment variable to initiate scanning.

C. Store the password in the AWS Systems Manager Parameter Store as a secure string. Add the Parameter Store key to the buildspec.yml file as an environment variable under the parameter-store mapping. Reference the environment variable to initiate scanning.

D. Use the AWS Encryption SDK to encrypt the password and embed in the buildspec.yml file as a variable under the secrets mapping. Attach a policy to CodeBuild to enable access to the required decryption key.

Correct Answer: C

QUESTION 5 #

A user is creating a new EBS volume from an existing snapshot. The snapshot size shows 10 GB. Can the user create a volume of 30 GB from that snapshot?

A. Provided the original volume has set the change size attribute to true
B. Yes
C. Provided the snapshot has the modified size attribute set as true
D. No

Correct Answer: B

Explanation: A user can always create a new EBS volume of a higher size than the original snapshot size. The user cannot create a volume of a lower size. When the new volume is created the size in the instance will be shown as the original size.

The user needs to change the size of the device with resize2fs or other OS-specific commands.

QUESTION 6 #

A company is deploying a new mobile game on AWS for its customers around the world. The Development team uses AWS Code services and must meet the following requirements:

Clients need to send/receive real-time playing data from the backend frequently and with minimal latency -Game data must meet the data residency requirement

Which strategy can a DevOps Engineer implement to meet their needs?

A. Deploy the backend application to multiple regions. Any update to the code repository triggers a two-stage build and deployment pipeline. Successful deployment in one region invokes an AWS Lambda function to copy the build artifacts to an Amazon S3 bucket in another region. After the artifact is copied, it triggers a deployment pipeline in the new region.

B. Deploy the backend application to multiple Availability Zones in a single region. Create an Amazon CloudFront distribution to serve the application backend to global customers. Any update to the code repository triggers a two-stage build-and-deployment pipeline. The pipeline deploys the backend application to all Availability Zones.

C. Deploy the backend application to multiple regions. Use AWS Direct Connect to serve the application backend to global customers. Any update to the code repository triggers a two-stage build-and-deployment pipeline in the region. After successful deployment in the region, the pipeline continues to deploy the artifact to another region.

D. Deploy the backend application to multiple regions. Any update to the code repository triggers a two-stage build-and-deployment pipeline in the region. After successful deployment in the region, the pipeline invokes the pipeline in another region and passes the build artifact location. The pipeline uses the artifact location and deploys applications in the new region.

Correct Answer: A

Reference:
https://docs.aws.amazon.com/codepipeline/latest/userguide/integrations-actiontype.html#integrationsinvoke

QUESTION 7 #

What needs to be done in order to remotely access a Docker daemon running on Linux?

A. add certificate authentication to the Docker API
B. change the encryption level to TLS
C. enable the TCP socket
D. bind the Docker API to a Unix socket

Correct Answer: C

The Docker daemon can listen for Docker Remote API requests via three different types of Socket: Unix, TCP, and fd. By default, a Unix domain socket (or IPC socket) is created at /var/run/docker.sock, requiring either root permission, or docker group membership.

If you need to access the Docker daemon remotely, you need to enable the TCP Socket.
Beware that the default setup provides unencrypted and unauthenticated direct access to the Docker daemon – and should be secured either using the built-in HTTPS encrypted socket or by putting a secure web proxy in front of it.

Reference: https://docs.docker.com/engine/reference/commandline/dockerd/#daemon-socket-option

QUESTION 8 #

A company runs an application on Amazon EC2 instances behind an Application Load Balancer. The instances run in an Amazon EC2 Auto Scaling group across multiple Availability Zones in us-east-1. The application stores data in an Amazon RDS MySQL Multi-AZ DB instance.

A DevOps engineer wants to modify the current solution and create a hot standby of the environment in another region to minimize downtime if a problem occurs in us-east-1.

Which combination of steps should the DevOps engineer take to meet these requirements? (Choose three.)

A. Add a health check to the Amazon Route 53 alias record to evaluate the health of the primary region. Use AWS Lambda, configured with an Amazon CloudWatch Events trigger, to promote the Amazon RDS read replica in the disaster recovery region.

B. Create a new Application Load Balancer and Amazon EC2 Auto Scaling group in the disaster recovery region.

C. Extend the current Amazon EC2 Auto Scaling group to the subnets in the disaster recovery region.

D. Enable multi-region failover for the RDS configuration for the database instance.

E. Deploy a read replica of the RDS instance in the disaster recovery region.

F. Create an AWS Lambda function to evaluate the health of the primary region. If it fails, modify the Amazon Route 53 record to point at the disaster recovery region and promote the RDS read replica.

Correct Answer: ABE

QUESTION 9 #

Which of the following is an invalid variable name in Ansible?

A. host1st_ref
B. host-first-ref
C. Host1stRef
D. host_first_ref

Correct Answer: B

Variable names can contain letters, numbers, and underscores and should always start with a letter. Invalid variable examples, host first ref\\',1st_host_ref\’\’.

Reference: http://docs.ansible.com/ansible/playbooks_variables.html#what-makes-a-valid-variable-name

QUESTION 10 #

A company is hosting a web application in an AWS Region. For disaster recovery purposes, a second region is being used as a standby. Disaster recovery requirements state that session data must be replicated between regions in near real-time and 1% of requests should route to the secondary region to continuously verify system functionality.

Additionally, if there is a disruption in service in the main region, traffic should be automatically routed to the secondary region, and the secondary region must be able to scale up to handle all traffic. How should a DevOps Engineer meet these requirements?

A. In both regions, deploy the application on AWS Elastic Beanstalk and use Amazon DynamoDB global tables for session data. Use an Amazon Route 53 weighted routing policy with health checks to distribute the traffic across the regions.

B. In both regions, launch the application in Auto Scaling groups and use DynamoDB for session data. Use a Route 53 failover routing policy with health checks to distribute the traffic across the regions.

C. In both regions, deploy the application in AWS Lambda, exposed by Amazon API Gateway, and use Amazon RDS PostgreSQL with cross-region replication for session data. Deploy the web application with client-side logic to call the API Gateway directly.

D. In both regions, launch the application in Auto Scaling groups and use DynamoDB global tables for session data. Enable an Amazon CloudFront weighted distribution across regions. Point the Amazon Route 53 DNS record at the CloudFront distribution.

Correct Answer: A

QUESTION 11 #

The development team is creating a social media game that ranks users on a scoreboard. The current implementation uses an Amazon RDS for MySQL database for storing user data; however, the game cannot display scores quickly enough during performance testing.

Which service would provide the fastest retrieval times?

A. Migrate user data to Amazon DynamoDB for managing content.
B. Use AWS Batch to compute and deliver user and score content.
C. Deploy Amazon CloudFront for user and score content delivery.
D. Set up Amazon ElastiCache to deliver user and score content.

Correct Answer: D

QUESTION 12 #

Ansible supports running Playbook on the host directly or via SSH. How can Ansible be told to run its playbooks directly on the host?

A. Setting connection: local\’ in the tasks that run locally.
B. Specifying-type local\’ on the command line.
C. It does not need to be specified; it is the default.
D. Setting connection: local\’ in the Playbook.

Correct Answer: D

Ansible can be told to run locally on the command line with the-c\’ option or can be told via the connection: local\’ declaration in the playbook. The default connection method isremote\’.

Reference: http://docs.ansible.com/ansible/intro_inventory.html#non-ssh-connection-types

QUESTION 13 #

A company has an application deployed using Amazon ECS with data stored in an Amazon DynamoDB table. The company wants the application to failover to another Region in a disaster recovery scenario. The application must also efficiently recover from any accidental data loss events. The RPO for the application is 1 hour and the RTO is 2 hours.

Which highly available solution should a DevOps engineer recommend?

A. Change the configuration of the existing DynamoDB table. Enable this as a global table and specify the second Region that will be used. Enable DynamoDB point-in-time recovery.

B. Enable DynamoDB Streams for the table and create an AWS Lambda function to write the stream data to an S3 bucket in the second Region. Schedule a job for every 2 hours to use AWS Data Pipeline to restore the database to the failover Region.

C. Export the DynamoDB table every 2 hours using AWS Data Pipeline to an Amazon S3 bucket in the second Region. Use Data Pipeline in the second Region to restore the export from S3 into the second DynamoDB table.

D. Use AWS DMS to replicate the data every hour. Set the original DynamoDB table as the source and the new DynamoDB table as the target.

Correct Answer: B

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QUESTION 1 #

You deploy Enterprise Mobility + Security E5 and assign Microsoft 365 licenses to all employees.
Employees must not be able to share documents or forward emails that contain sensitive information outside the company.

You need to enforce the file-sharing restrictions.
What should you do?

A. Use Microsoft Azure Information Protection to define a label. Associate the label with an Azure Rights Management template that prevents the sharing of files or emails that are marked with the label.

B. Create a Microsoft SharePoint Online content type named Sensitivity. Apply the content type to other content types in Microsoft 365. Create a Microsoft Azure Rights Management template that prevents the sharing of any content where the Sensitivity column value is set to Sensitive.

C. Use Microsoft Azure Information Rights Protection to define a label. Associate the label with an Active Directory Rights Management template that prevents the sharing of files or emails that are marked with the label.

D. Create a label named Sensitive. Apply a Data Layer Protection policy that notifies users when their document contains personally identifiable information (PII).

Correct Answer: D

QUESTION 2 #

HOTSPOT
What happens when you enable external access by using the Microsoft 365 admin portal? To answer, select the appropriate options in the answer area.
Hot Area:

Correct Answer:

Reference: https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/sharepoint/external-sharing-overview

QUESTION 3 #

You need to ensure that all users in your tenant have access to the earliest release of updates in Microsoft 365. You set the organizational release preference to Standard release.

Select the correct answer if the underlined text does not make the statement correct. Select “No change is needed” if the underlined text makes the statement correct.

A. Targeted release for the entire organization
B. No change is needed
C. Targeted release for select users
D. First release

Correct Answer: A

The standard release is the default setting. It implements updates on final release rather than early release.

The first release is now called the Targeted release. The targeted release is the early release of updates for early feedback. You can choose to have individuals or the entire organization receive updates early.

Reference:
https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/office365/admin/manage/release-options-in-office-365?view=o365-worldwide

QUESTION 4 #

DRAG DROP
Your company uses Microsoft 365 with a business support plan.
You need to identify Service Level Agreements (SLAs) from Microsoft for the support plan.

What response can you expect for each event type? To answer, drag the appropriate responses to the correct event types. Each response may be used once, more than once, or not at all. You may need to drag the split bar between panes or scroll to view content.

NOTE: Each correct selection is worth one point.

References: https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/office365/servicedescriptions/office-365-platform-servicedescription/support

QUESTION 5 #

HOTSPOT
An organization migrates to Microsoft 365. The company has an on-premises infrastructure that includes Exchange Server and Active Directory Domain Services. Client devices run Windows 7.

You need to determine which products require the purchase of Microsoft 365 licenses for new employees.

Which product licenses should the company purchase? To answer, select the appropriate options in the answer area.
NOTE: Each correct selection is worth one point.

Hot Area:

Correct Answer:

References: https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/microsoft-365/enterprise/migration-microsoft-365-enterpriseworkload#result

QUESTION 6 #

HOTSPOT
For each of the following statements, select Yes if the statement is true. Otherwise, select No.
NOTE: Each correct selection is worth one point.

Hot Area:

Correct Answer:

Explanation:
This is a vague question. The second answer depends on the definition of a “few on-premises” resources.

QUESTION 7 #

A company assigns a Microsoft 365 license to each employee.
You need to install Microsoft Office 365 ProPlus on each employee’s laptop computer.
Which three methods can you use? Each correct answer presents a complete solution.

NOTE: Each correct selection is worth one point.

A. Use System Center Configuration Manager (SCCM) to deploy Office 365 ProPlus from a local distribution source.

B. Use System Center Configuration Manager (SCCM) to deploy Office 365 ProPlus from an Office Windows Installer (MSI) package.

C. Download the Office 365 ProPlus Windows Installer (MSI) package. Install Office 365 ProPlus from a local distribution source.

D. Use the Office Deployment Tool (ODT) to download installation files to a local distribution source. Install Office 365 ProPlus by using the downloaded files.

E. Enable users to download and install Office 365 ProPlus from the Office 365 portal.

Correct Answer: ADE

Reference: https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/deployoffice/teams-install

https://docs.microsoft.com/enus/deployoffice/deploy-office-365-proplus-from-the-cloud

https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/deployoffice/deployoffice-365-proplus-with-system-center-configuration-manager

https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/deployoffice/deployoffice-365-proplus-from-a-local-source

QUESTION 8 #

HOTSPOT
For each of the following statements, select Yes if the statement is true. Otherwise, select No.
NOTE: Each correct selection is worth one point.

References: https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/partner-center/csp-documents-and-learning-resources
https://www.qbsgroup.com/news/what-is-the-microsoft-cloud-solution-provider-program/

QUESTION 9 #

You are the Microsoft 365 administrator for a company.
You need to customize a usage report for Microsoft Yammer.
Which two tools can you use? Each correct answer presents a complete solution.
NOTE: Each correct selection is worth one point.

A. Microsoft SQL Server Analysis Services
B. Microsoft SQL Server Reporting Services
C. Microsoft Power BI in a browser
D. Microsoft Power BI Desktop
E. Microsoft Visual Studio

Correct Answer: CD
Reference: https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/office365/admin/usage-analytics/customize-reports?view=o365-worldwide

QUESTION 10 #

DRAG-DROP
You are implementing cloud services.
Match each scenario to its service. To answer, drag the appropriate scenario from the column on the left to its cloud service on the right. Each scenario may be used only once.

NOTE: Each correct selection is worth one point.

Select and Place:

Correct Answer:

Reference: https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/office365/enterprise/hybrid-cloud-overview

QUESTION 11 #

Your company purchases Microsoft 365 E3 and Azure AD P2 licenses.
You need to provide identity protection against login attempts by unauthorized users.
What should you implement?

A. Azure AD Identity Protection
B. Azure AD Privileged Identity Management
C. Azure Information Protection
D. Azure Identity and Access Management

Correct Answer: A
Reference: https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/azure/active-directory/identity-protection/overview

QUESTION 12 #

DRAG DROP
A company plans to deploy a compliance solution in Microsoft 365.

Match each compliance solution to its description. To answer, drag the appropriate compliance solution from the column on the left to its description on the right. Each compliance solution may be used once, more than once, or not at all.

NOTE: Each correct match is worth one point.

Select and Place:

QUESTION 13 #

HOTSPOT
A company plans to deploy Microsoft Intune.
Which types of apps can be managed by Intune?
For each of the following statements, select Yes if the statement is true. Otherwise, select No.
NOTE: Each correct selection is worth one point.

Hot Area:

QUESTION 14 #

DRAG-DROP
A company plans to migrate from a Microsoft volume licensing model to a subscription-based model.
Updates to devices must meet the following requirements:

You need to recommend the appropriate servicing models to update employee devices.
To answer, drag the servicing model from the column on the left to its component on the right. Each model may be used once, more than once, or not at all.

NOTE: Each correct selection is worth one point.

References: https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/windows/deployment/update/waas-overview#servicing-tools

QUESTION 15 #

DRAG-DROP
A company plans to deploy Azure Active Directory (Azure AD).
The company needs to purchase the appropriate Azure AD license or licenses while minimizing the cost.

Match each Azure AD license to its requirement. To answer, drag the appropriate Azure AD license from the column on the left to its requirement on the right. Each Azure AD license may be used once, more than once, or not at all.

NOTE: Each correct match is worth one point.

Select and Place:

Reference: https://azure.microsoft.com/en-gb/pricing/details/active-directory/

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QUESTION 1

IT systems should be designed to reduce interdependencies so that a change or failure in one component does not cascade to other components.
This is an example of which principle of cloud architecture design?

A. Scalability
B. Loose coupling
C. Automation
D. Automatic scaling

QUESTION 2

Compared with costs in traditional and virtualized data centers, AWS has:

A. greater variable costs and greater upfront costs.
B. fixed usage costs and lower upfront costs.
C. lower variable costs and greater upfront costs.
D. lower variable costs and lower upfront costs.

QUESTION 3

When architecting cloud applications, which of the following are a key design principle?

A. Use the largest instance possible
B. Provision capacity for peak load
C. Use the Scrum development process
D. Implement elasticity

QUESTION 4

Which AWS services or features enable a user to establish a network connection from on-premises to the AWS Cloud? (Select TWO.)

A. AWS Direct Connect
B. AWS Snowball
C. Amazon S3
D. VPN connection E. Amazon Connect

QUESTION 5

The AWS global infrastructure consists of Regions, Availability Zones, and what else?

A. VPCs
B. Datacenters
C. Dark fiber network links
D. Edge locations

QUESTION 6

How does AWS charge for AWS Lambda?

A. Users bid on the maximum price they are willing to pay per hour.
B. Users choose a 1-, 3- or 5-year upfront payment term.
C. Users pay for the required permanent storage on a file system or in a database.
D. Users pay based on the number of requests and consumed computing resources.

QUESTION 7

Which of the following allows an application running on an Amazon EC2 instance to securely write data to an Amazon S3 bucket without using long-term credentials?

A. Amazon Cognito
B. AWS Shield
C. AWS IAM role
D. AWS IAM user access key

QUESTION 8

A company plans to store sensitive data in an Amazon S3 bucket. Which task is the responsibility of AWS?

A. Activate encryption at rest for the data
B. Provide security for the physical infrastructure
C. Train the company\\’s employees about cloud security
D. Remove personally identifiable information (PII) from the data

QUESTION 9

What can AWS edge locations be used for? (Choose two.)

A. Hosting applications
B. Delivering content closer to users
C. Running NoSQL database caching services
D. Reducing traffic on the server by caching responses
E. Sending notification messages to end-users

QUESTION 10

A company plans to create a data lake that uses Amazon S3. Which factor will have the MOST effect on cost?

A. The selection of S3 storage tiers
B. Charges to transfer existing data into Amazon S3
C. The addition of S3 bucket policies
D. S3 ingest fees for each request

QUESTION 11

A company that does business online needs to quickly deliver new functionality in an iterative manner, minimizing the time to market.
Which AWS Cloud feature can provide this?

A. Elasticity
B. High availability
C. Agility
D. Reliability

QUESTION 12

A customer needs to run a MySQL database that easily scales. Which AWS service should they use?

A. Amazon Aurora
B. Amazon Redshift
C. Amazon DynamoDB
D. Amazon ElastiCache

QUESTION 13

What costs are included when comparing AWS’s Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) with on-premises TCO?

A. Project management
B. Antivirus software licensing
C. Data center security
D. Software development

The correct answer and analysis are here:

Q1:

Correct Answer: B
Reference: https://d1.awsstatic.com/whitepapers/AWS_Cloud_Best_Practices.pdf (20)

Q2:

Correct Answer: D
Reference: https://d1.awsstatic.com/whitepapers/introduction-to-aws-cloud-economics-final.pdf (10)

Q3:

Correct Answer: B

Cloud service’s main proposition is to provide elasticity through horizontal scaling. It\’s already there. As for using the largest instance possible, it is not a design principle that helps cloud applications in any way.

The Scrum development process is not related to architecting. Therefore, a key principle is to provision your application for on-demand capacity.

Peak loads are something that cloud applications experience every day. Peak load management should be a necessary part of the cloud application design principle.
Reference: https://d1.awsstatic.com/whitepapers/AWS_Cloud_Best_Practices.pdf

Q4:

Correct Answer: AD

Q5:

Correct Answer: B
Reference: https://www.inqdo.com/aws-explained-global-infrastructure/?lang=en

Q6:

Correct Answer: D
AWS Lambda is charging its users by the number of requests for their functions and by the duration, which is the time the code needs to execute. When code starts running in response to an event, AWS Lambda counts a request.

It will charge the total number of requests across all of the functions used. Duration is calculated by the time when your code started executing until it returns or until it is terminated, rounded up near to 100ms.

The AWS Lambda pricing depends on the amount of memory that the user used to allocate to the function.
Reference: https://dashbird.io/blog/aws-lambda-pricing-model-explained/

Q7:

Correct Answer: C

Q8:

Correct Answer: B

Q9:

Correct Answer: BD

CloudFront delivers your content through a worldwide network of data centers called edge locations. When a user requests content that you\\’re serving with CloudFront, the user is routed to the edge location that provides the lowest latency (time delay), so that content is delivered with the best possible performance.

Reference: https://docs.aws.amazon.com/AmazonCloudFront/latest/DeveloperGuide/Introduction.html

Q10:

Correct Answer: B

Q11:

Correct Answer: C
Reference: https://aws.amazon.com/devops/partner-solutions/

Q12:

Correct Answer: A
Reference: https://aws.amazon.com/rds/aurora/serverless/

Q13:

Correct Answer: A

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QUESTION 1 #

A start-up company has a web application based in the us-east-1 Region with multiple Amazon EC2 instances running behind an Application Load Balancer across multiple Availability Zones As the company\\’s user base grows in the west- 1 Region, it needs 3 solutions with low latency and high availability.

What should a solutions architect do to accomplish this?

A. Provision EC2 instances in us-west-1. Switch my Application Load Balancer to a Network Load Balancer to achieve cross-Region load balancing.

B. Provision EC2 instances and an Application Load Balancer in us-west-1 Make the load balancer distribute the traffic based on the location of the request

C. Provision EC2 instances and configure an Application Load Balancer in us-west-1. Create an accelerator in AWS Global Accelerator uses an endpoint group that includes the load balancer endpoints in both Regions.

D. Provision EC2 Instances and configure an Application Load Balancer in us-wesl-1 Configure Amazon Route 53 with
a weighted routing policy. Create alias records in Route 53 that point to the Application Load Balancer

Correct Answer: C

Register endpoints for endpoint groups: You register one or more regional resources, such as Application Load Balancers, Network Load Balancers, EC2 Instances, or Elastic IP addresses, in each endpoint group. Then you can set weights to choose how much traffic is routed to each endpoint.
Endpoints in AWS Global Accelerator can be Network Load Balancers, Application Load
Balancers, Amazon EC2 instances, or Elastic IP addresses.

A static IP address serves as a single point of contact for clients, and Global Accelerator then distributes incoming traffic across healthy endpoints.
Global Accelerator directs traffic to endpoints by using the port (or port range) that you specify for the listener that the endpoint group for the endpoint belongs to.
Each endpoint group can have multiple endpoints. You can add each endpoint to multiple endpoint groups, but the endpoint groups must be associated with different listeners.

Global Accelerator continually monitors the health of all endpoints that are included in an endpoint group. It routes traffic only to the active endpoints that are healthy. If Global Accelerator does ?€™t have any healthy endpoints to route traffic to, it routes traffic to all endpoints.

Reference:
https://docs.aws.amazon.com/global-accelerator/latest/dg/about-endpoints.html
https://aws.amazon.com/global-accelerator/faqs/

QUESTION 2 #

Company is running an application on Amazon EC2 instances. Traffic to the workload increases substantially during business hours and decreases afterward. The CPU utilization of an EC2 instance is a strong indicator of end-user demand on the application. The company has configured an Auto Scaling group to have a minimum group size of 2 EC2 instances and a maximum group size of 10 EC2 instances.

The company is concerned that the current scaling policy that is associated with the Auto Scaling group might not be correct. The company must avoid over-provisioning EC2 instances and incurring unnecessary costs.

What should a solutions architect recommend to meet these requirements?

A. Configure Amazon EC2 Auto Scaling to use a scheduled scaling plan and launch an additional 8 EC2 instances during business hours.

B. Configure AWS Auto Scaling to use a scaling plan that enables predictive scaling. Configure predictive scaling with a scaling model of forecast and scale, and enforce the maximum capacity setting during scaling.

C. Configure a step scaling policy to add 4 EC2 instances at 50% CPU utilization and add another 4 EC2 instances at 90% CPU utilization. Configure scale-in policies to perform the reverse and remove EC2 instances based on the two values.

D. Configure AWS Auto Scaling to have the desired capacity of 5 EC2 instances, and disable any existing scaling policies. Monitor the CPU utilization metric for 1 week. Then create dynamic scaling policies that are based on the observed values.

Correct Answer: B

QUESTION 3 #

A company needs the ability to analyze the log files of its proprietary application The logs are stored in JSON format in an Amazon S3 bucket Queries will be simple and will run on- demand A solutions architect needs to perform the analysis with minimal changes to the existing architecture
What should the solutions architect do to meet these requirements with the LEAST amount of operational overhead?

A. Use Amazon Redshift to load all the content into one place and run the SQL queries as needed

B. Use Amazon CloudWatch Logs to store the logs Run SQL queries as needed from the Amazon CloudWatch console

C. Use Amazon Athena directly with Amazon S3 to run the queries as needed

D. Use AWS Glue to catalog the logs Use a transient Apache Spark cluster on Amazon EMR to run the SQL queries as needed

Correct Answer: B

QUESTION 4 #

An application running on AWS uses an Amazon Aurora Multi-AZ deployment for its database When evaluating performance metrics, a solutions architect discovered that the database reads are causing high I/O and adding latency to the write requests against the database What should the solutions architect do to separate the read requests from the write requests?

A. Enable read-through caching on the Amazon Aurora database

B. Update the application to read from the Multi-AZ standby instance

C. Create a read replica and modify the application to use the appropriate endpoint

D. Create a second Amazon Aurora database and link it to the primary database as a read replica.

Correct Answer: C

Amazon RDS Read Replicas provide enhanced performance and durability for RDS database (DB) instances. They make it easy to elastically scale out beyond the capacity constraints of a single DB instance for read-heavy database workloads.

You can create one or more replicas of a given source DB Instance and serve high-volume application read traffic from multiple copies of your data, thereby increasing aggregate read throughput. Read replicas can also be promoted when needed to become standalone DB instances. Read replicas are available in Amazon RDS for MySQL, MariaDB, PostgreSQL, Oracle, and SQL Server as well as Amazon Aurora.

For MySQL, MariaDB, PostgreSQL, Oracle, and SQL Server database engines, Amazon RDS creates a second DB instance using a snapshot of the source DB instance. It then uses the engines\’ native asynchronous replication to update the read replica whenever there is a change to the source DB instance.

The read replica operates as a DB instance that allows only read-only connections; applications can connect to a read replica just as they would to any DB instance. Amazon RDS replicates all databases in the source DB instance.

Amazon Aurora further extends the benefits of reading replicas by employing an SSD-backed virtualized storage layer purpose-built for database workloads. Amazon Aurora replicas share the same underlying storage as the source instance, lowering costs and avoiding the need to copy data to the replica nodes. For more information about replication with Amazon Aurora, see the online documentation.

https://aws.amazon.com/rds/features/read-replicas/

QUESTION 5 #

A company has multiple AWS accounts, for various departments. One of the departments wants to share an Amazon S3 bucket with all other departments.

Which solution will require the LEAST amount of effort?

A. Enable cross-account S3 replication for the bucket

B. Create a pre-signed URL for the bucket and share it with other departments

C. Set the S3 bucket policy to allow cross-account access to other departments

D. Create IAM users for each of the departments and configure a read-only IAM policy

Correct Answer: C
https://docs.aws.amazon.com/AmazonS3/latest/dev/example-walkthroughs-managing-accessexample2.html

QUESTION 6 #

A company has a customer relationship management (CRM) application that stores data in an Amazon RDS DB instance that runs Microsoft SQL Server. The company\’s IT staff has administrative access to the database. The database contains sensitive data. The company wants to ensure that the data is not accessible to the IT staff and that only authorized personnel can view the data.

What should a solutions architect do to secure the data?

A. Use client-side encryption with an Amazon RDS managed key.

B. Use client-side encryption with an AWS Key Management Service (AWS KMS) customer-managed key.

C. Use Amazon RDS encryption with an AWS Key Management Service (AWS KMS) default encryption key.

D. Use Amazon RDS encryption with an AWS Key Management Service (AWS KMS) customer-managed key.
Correct Answer: C

QUESTION 7 #

A solutions architect is designing a VPC with public and private subnets. The VPC and subnets use IPv4 CIDR blocks. There is one public subnet and one private subnet in each of three Availability Zones (AZs) for high availability.

An intern! gateway is used to provide internet access for the public subnets. The private subnets require access to the internet to allow Amazon EC2 instances to download software updates.

What should the solutions architect do to enable internet access for the private subnets?

A. Create three NAT gateways, one for each public subnet in each AZ. Create a private route table for each AZ that forwards non-VPC traffic to the NAT gateway in its AZ

B. Create three NAT instances, one for each private subnet in each AZ. Create a private route table for each AZ that forwards non-VPC traffic to the NAT instance in its AZ

C. Create a second internet gateway on one of the private subnets. Update the routing table for the private subnets that forward non-VPC traffic to the private internet gateway

D. Create an egress-only internet gateway on one of the public subnets. Update the routing table for the private subnets that forward non-VPC traffic to the egress only internet gateway

Correct Answer: B

QUESTION 8 #

A company currently stores symmetric encryption keys in a hardware security module (HSM). A solution architect must design a solution to migrate key management to AWS. The solution should allow for key rotation and support the use of customer-provided keys.

Where should the key material be stored to meet these requirements?

A. Amazon S3

B. AWS Secrets Manager

C. AWS Systems Manager Parameter store

D. AWS Key Management Service (AWS KMS)

Correct Answer: B
https://aws.amazon.com/cloudhsm/

QUESTION 9 #

A solutions architect is designing a web application that will run on Amazon EC2 instances behind an Application Load Balancer (ALB) The company strictly requires that the application be resilient against malicious internet activity and attacks, and protect against new common vulnerabilities and exposures.

What should the solutions architect recommend?

A. Leverage Amazon CloudFront with the ALB endpoint as the origin

B. Deploy an appropriately managed rule for AWS WAF and associate it with the ALB

C. Subscribe to AWS Shield Advanced and ensure common vulnerabilities and exposures are blocked

D. Configure network ACLs and security groups to allow only ports 80 and 443 to access the EC2 instances

Correct Answer: B

QUESTION 10 #

The company has a live chat application running on a list of on-premises servers that use WebSockets. The company wants to migrate the application to AWS Application traffic is inconsistent, and the company expects there to be more traffic with sharp spikes in the future.

Does the company want a highly scalable solution with no server maintenance nor advanced capacity planning Which solution meets these requirements?

A. Use Amazon API Gateway and AWS Lambda with an Amazon DynamoDB table as the data store Configure the DynamoDB table for provisioned capacity

B. Use Amazon API Gateway and AWS Lambda with an Amazon DynamoDB table as the data store Configure the DynaiWDB table for on-demand capacity

C. Run Amazon EC2 instances behind an Application Load Balancer in an Auto Scaling group with an Amazon DynamoDB table as the data store Configure the DynamoDB table for on-demand capacity

D. Run Amazon EC2 instances behind a Network Load Balancer in an Auto Scaling group with an Amazon DynamoDB table as the data store Configure the DynamoDB table for provisioned capacity

Correct Answer: B

QUESTION 11 #

A company runs a static website through its on-premises data center. The company has multiple servers mat handle all of its traffic, but on busy days, services are interrupted and the website becomes unavailable. The company wants to expand its presence globally and plans to triple its website traffic.

What should a solutions architect recommend to meet these requirements?

A. Migrate the website content to Amazon S3 and host the website on Amazon CloudFront.

B. Migrate the website content to Amazon EC2 instances with public Elastic IP addresses in multiple AWS Regions.

C. Migrate the website content to Amazon EC2 instances and vertically scale as the load increases.

D. Use Amazon Route 53 to distribute the loads across multiple Amazon CloudFront distributions for each AWS Region that exists globally.

Correct Answer: A

Amazon CloudFront is a global Content Delivery Network (CDN), which will host your website on a global network of edge servers, helping users load your website more quickly. When requests for your website content come through, they are automatically routed to the nearest edge location, closest to where the request originated from, so your content is delivered to your end-user with the best possible performance.

QUESTION 12 #

A solution architect is performing a security review of a recently migrated workload. The workload is a web application that consists of Amazon EC2 instances in an Auto Scaling group behind an Application Load balancer. The solution architect must improve the security posture and minimize the impact of a DDoS attack on resources.

Which solution is MOST effective?

A. Configure an AWS WAF ACL with rate-based rules. Create an Amazon CloudFront distribution that points to the Application Load Balancer. Enable the EAF ACL on the CloudFront distribution

B. Create a custom AWS Lambda function that adds identified attacks into a common vulnerability pool to capture a potential DDoS attack. use the identified information to modify a network ACL to block access.

C. Enable VPC Flow Logs and store them in Amazon S3. Create a custom AWS Lambda functions that parse the logs looking for a DDoS attack. Modify a network ACL to block identified source IP addresses.

D. Enable Amazon GuardDuty and configure findings written 10 Amazon GloudWatch Create an event with Cloud Watch Events for DDoS alerts that trigger Amazon Simple Notification Service (Amazon SNS) Have Amazon SNS invoke a custom AWS Lambda function that parses the logs looking for a DDoS attack Modify a network ACL to block identified source IP addresses

Correct Answer: B

QUESTION 13

A solutions architect needs to ensure that all Amazon Elastic Block Store (Amazon EBS) volumes restored from unencrypted EBS snapshots are encrypted What should the solutions architect do to accomplish this?

A. Enable EBS encryption by default for the AWS Region

B. Enable EBS encryption by default for the specific volumes

C. Create a new volume and specify the symmetric customer master key (CMK) to use for encryption

D. Create a new volume and specify the asymmetric customer master key (CMK) to use for encryption.

Correct Answer: C

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MLS-C01

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QUESTION 1 #

A Machine Learning Specialist is developing a custom video recommendation model for an application. The dataset used to train this model is very large with millions of data points and is hosted in an Amazon S3 bucket. The Specialist wants to avoid loading all of this data onto an Amazon SageMaker notebook instance because it would take hours to move and will exceed the attached 5 GB Amazon EBS volume on the notebook instance.

Which approach allows the Specialist to use all the data to train the model?

A. Load a smaller subset of the data into the SageMaker notebook and train locally. Confirm that the training code is executing and the model parameters seem reasonable. Initiate a SageMaker training job using the full dataset from the S3 bucket using Pipe input mode.

B. Launch an Amazon EC2 instance with an AWS Deep Learning AMI and attach the S3 bucket to the instance. Train on a small amount of the data to verify the training code and hyperparameters. Go back to Amazon SageMaker and train using the full dataset

C. Use AWS Glue to train a model using a small subset of the data to confirm that the data will be compatible with Amazon SageMaker. Initiate a SageMaker training job using the full dataset from the S3 bucket using Pipe input mode.

D. Load a smaller subset of the data into the SageMaker notebook and train locally. Confirm that the training code is executing and the model parameters seem reasonable. Launch an Amazon EC2 instance with an AWS Deep Learning AMI and attach the S3 bucket to train the full dataset.

Correct Answer: A

QUESTION 2 #

This graph shows the training and validation loss against the epochs for a neural network.
The network being trained is as follows:
1. Two dense layers, one output neuron
2. 100 neurons in each layer
3. 100 epochs
4. Random initialization of weights

Which technique can be used to improve model performance in terms of accuracy in the validation set?

A. Early stopping
B. Random initialization of weights with appropriate seed
C. Increasing the number of epochs
D. Adding another layer with the 100 neurons
Correct Answer: C

QUESTION 3 #

An online reseller has a large, multi-column dataset with one column missing 30% of its data A Machine Learning Does the specialist believe that certain columns in the dataset could be used to reconstruct the missing data.

Which reconstruction approach should the Specialist use to preserve the integrity of the dataset?

A. Listwise deletion
B. Last observation carried forward
C. Multiple imputation
D. Mean substitution
Correct Answer: C
Reference: https://worldwidescience.org/topicpages/i/imputing+missing+values.html

QUESTION 4 #

A company uses a long short-term memory (LSTM) model to evaluate the risk factors of a particular energy sector.

The model reviews multi-page text documents to analyze each sentence of the text and categorize it as either a potential risk or no risk. The model is not performing well, even though the Data Scientist has experimented with many different network structures and tuned the corresponding hyperparameters.

Which approach will provide the MAXIMUM performance boost?

A. Initialize the words by term frequency-inverse document frequency (TF-IDF) vectors pretrained on a large collection
of news articles related to the energy sector.
B. Use gated recurrent units (GRUs) instead of LSTM and run the training process until the valid ation loss stops
decreasing.
C. Reduce the learning rate and run the training process until the training loss stops decreasing.
D. Initialize the words by word2vec embeddings pretrained on a large collection of news articles related to the energy
sector.
Correct Answer: C

QUESTION 5 #

Machine Learning Specialist is working with a media company to perform classification on popular articles from the company\\’s website. The company is using random forests to classify how popular an article will be before it is published. A sample of the data being used is below.

Given the dataset, the Specialist wants to convert the Day_Of_Week column to binary values.

What technique should be used to convert this column to binary values?

A. Binarization
B. One-hot encoding
C. Tokenization
D. Normalization transformation
Correct Answer: B

QUESTION 6 #

An e-commerce company wants to launch a new cloud-based product recommendation feature for its web application.

Due to data localization regulations, any sensitive data must not leave its on-premises data center, and the product recommendation model must be trained and tested using nonsensitive data only. Data transfer to the cloud must use IPsec.

The web application is hosted on-premises with a PostgreSQL database that contains all the data. The company wants the data to be uploaded securely to Amazon S3 each day for model retraining.

How should a machine learning specialist meet these requirements?

A. Create an AWS Glue job to connect to the PostgreSQL DB instance. Ingest tables without sensitive data through an AWS Site-to-Site VPN connection directly into Amazon S3.
B. Create an AWS Glue job to connect to the PostgreSQL DB instance. Ingest all data through an AWS Site-to-Site VPN connection into Amazon S3 while removing sensitive data using a PySpark job.
C. Use AWS Database Migration Service (AWS DMS) with table mapping to select PostgreSQL tables with no sensitive data through an SSL connection. Replicate data directly into Amazon S3.
D. Use PostgreSQL logical replication to replicate all data to PostgreSQL in Amazon EC2 through AWS Direct Connect with a VPN connection. Use AWS Glue to move data from Amazon EC2 to Amazon S3.
Correct Answer: C
Reference: https://docs.aws.amazon.com/dms/latest/userguide/CHAP_Source.PostgreSQL.html

QUESTION 7 #

A media company with a very large archive of unlabeled images, text, audio, and video footage wishes to index its assets to allow rapid identification of relevant content by the Research team. The company wants to use machine learning to accelerate the efforts of its in-house researchers who have limited machine learning expertise.

Which is the FASTEST route to index the assets?

A. Use Amazon Rekognition, Amazon Comprehend, and Amazon Transcribe to tag data into distinct
categories/classes.
B. Create a set of Amazon Mechanical Turk Human Intelligence Tasks to label all footage.
C. Use Amazon Transcribe to convert speech to text. Use the Amazon SageMaker Neural Topic Model (NTM) and Object Detection algorithms to tag data into distinct categories/classes.
D. Use the AWS Deep Learning AMI and Amazon EC2 GPU instances to create custom models for audio transcription and topic modeling and use object detection to tag data into distinct categories/classes.
Correct Answer: A

QUESTION 8 #

A company is using Amazon Textract to extract textual data from thousands of scanned text-heavy legal documents daily. The company uses this information to process loan applications automatically.

Some of the documents fail business validation and are returned to human reviewers, who investigate the errors. This activity increases the time to process the loan applications.

What should the company do to reduce the processing time of loan applications?

A. Configure Amazon Textract to route low-confidence predictions to Amazon SageMaker Ground Truth. Perform a manual review on those words before performing a business validation.
B. Use an Amazon Textract synchronous operation instead of an asynchronous operation.
C. Configure Amazon Textract to route low-confidence predictions to Amazon Augmented AI (Amazon A2I). Perform a manual review on those words before performing a business validation.
D. Use Amazon Rekognition\’s feature to detect text in an image to extract the data from scanned images. Use this information to process the loan applications.
Correct Answer: C

QUESTION 9 #

A Machine Learning Specialist has built a model using Amazon SageMaker built-in algorithms and is not getting expected accurate results The Specialist wants to use hyperparameter optimization to increase the model\\’s accuracy

Which method is the MOST repeatable and requires the LEAST amount of effort to achieve this?

A. Launch multiple training jobs in parallel with different hyperparameters
B. Create an AWS Step Functions workflow that monitors the accuracy in Amazon CloudWatch Logs and relaunches the training job with a defined list of hyperparameters
C. Create a hyperparameter tuning job and set the accuracy as an objective metric.
D. Create a random walk in the parameter space to iterate through a range of values that should be used for each individual hyperparameter
Correct Answer: B

QUESTION 10 #

A Machine Learning Specialist is required to build a supervised image-recognition model to identify a cat. The ML Specialist performs some tests and records the following results for a neural network-based image classifier:

Total number of images available = 1,000 Test set images = 100 (constant test set)
The ML Specialist notices that, in over 75% of the misclassified images, the cats were held upside down by their owners.

Which techniques can be used by the ML Specialist to improve this specific test error?

A. Increase the training data by adding variation in rotation for training images.
B. Increase the number of epochs for model training.
C. Increase the number of layers for the neural network.
D. Increase the dropout rate for the second-to-last layer.
Correct Answer: B

QUESTION 11 #

A Data Scientist needs to analyze employment data. The dataset contains approximately 10 million observations on people across 10 different features. During the preliminary analysis, the Data Scientist notices that income and age distributions are not normal. While income levels show a right skew as expected, with fewer individuals having a higher income, the age distribution also shows a right skew, with fewer older individuals participating in the workforce.

Which feature transformations can the Data Scientist apply to fix the incorrectly skewed data? (Choose two.)

A. Cross-validation
B. Numerical value binning
C. high-degree polynomial transformation
D. Logarithmic transformation
E. One hot encoding
Correct Answer: AB

QUESTION 12 #

For the given confusion matrix, what is the recall and precision of the model?

A. Recall = 0.92 Precision = 0.84
B. Recall = 0.84 Precision = 0.8
C. Recall = 0.92 Precision = 0.8
D. Recall = 0.8 Precision = 0.92
Correct Answer: A

QUESTION 13 #

A financial services company wants to adopt Amazon SageMaker as its default data science environment. The company\\’s data scientists run machine learning (ML) models on confidential financial data. The company is worried about data egress and wants an ML engineer to secure the environment.

Which mechanisms can the ML engineer use to control data egress from SageMaker? (Choose three.)

A. Connect to SageMaker by using a VPC interface endpoint powered by AWS PrivateLink.
B. Use SCPs to restrict access to SageMaker.
C. Disable root access on the SageMaker notebook instances.
D. Enable network isolation for training jobs and models.
E. Restrict notebook presigned URLs to specific IPs used by the company.
F. Protect data with encryption at rest and in transit. Use AWS Key Management Service (AWS KMS) to manage
encryption keys.
Correct Answer: BDF

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A Part For Free AWS CLF-C01 Practice Questions

QUESTION 1 #

According to the AWS shared responsibility model, who is responsible for configuration management?

A. It is solely the responsibility of the customer.
B. It is solely the responsibility of AWS.
C. It is shared between AWS and the customer.
D. It is not part of the AWS shared responsibility model.
Correct Answer: C

AWS maintains the configuration of its infrastructure devices, but a customer is responsible for configuring their own
guest operating systems, databases, and applications.
Reference: https://aws.amazon.com/compliance/shared-responsibility-model/

QUESTION 2 #

Which of the following provides the ability to share the cost benefits of Reserved Instances across AWS accounts?

A. AWS Cost Explorer between AWS accounts
B. Linked accounts and consolidated billing
C. Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2) Reserved Instance Utilization Report
D. Amazon EC2 Instance Usage Report between AWS accounts
Correct Answer: B

The way that Reserved Instance discounts apply to accounts in an organization\\’s consolidated billing family depends
on whether Reserved Instance sharing is turned on or off for the account. By default, Reserved Instance sharing for all
accounts in an organization is turned on. You can change this setting by Turning Off Reserved Instance Sharing for an
account. The capacity reservation for a Reserved Instance applies only to the account the Reserved Instance was
purchased on, regardless of whether Reserved Instance sharing is turned on or off.
Reference: https://aws.amazon.com/premiumsupport/knowledge-center/ec2-ri-consolidated-billing/

QUESTION 3 #

A company is hosting a web application in a Docker container on Amazon EC2. AWS is responsible for which of the following tasks?

A. Scaling the web application and services developed with Docker
B. Provisioning or scheduling containers to run on clusters and maintain their availability
C. Performing hardware maintenance in the AWS facilities that run the AWS Cloud
D. Managing the guest operating system, including updates and security patches
Correct Answer: C
Reference: https://aws.amazon.com/getting-started/tutorials/deploy-docker-containers/

QUESTION 4 #

Which AWS service acts as a data extract, transform, and load (ETL) tool to make it easy to prepare data for analytics?

A. Amazon QuickSight
B. Amazon Athena
C. AWS Glue
D. AWS Elastic Beanstalk
Correct Answer: C
Reference: https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/database/how-to-extract-transform-and-load-data-for-analyticprocessingusing-aws-glue-part-2/

QUESTION 5 #

Which of the following acts as an instance-level firewall to control inbound and outbound access?
A. Network access control list
B. Security groups
C. AWS Trusted Advisor
D. Virtual private gateways
Correct Answer: B

QUESTION 6 #

Which design principles are enabled by the AWS Cloud to improve the operation of workloads? (Choose two.)

A. Minimize upfront design
B. Loose coupling
C. Disposable resources
D. Server design and concurrency
E. Minimal viable product
Correct Answer: BC

QUESTION 7 #

The AWS global infrastructure consists of Regions, Availability Zones, and what else?

A. VPCs
B. Datacenters
C. Dark fiber network links
D. Edge locations
Correct Answer: B
Reference: https://www.inqdo.com/aws-explained-global-infrastructure/?lang=en

QUESTION 8 #

A company needs a data store for highly transactional workloads. Which AWS service would meet this requirement?

A. Amazon RDS
B. Amazon Redshift
C. Amazon S3
D. Amazon S3 Glacier
Correct Answer: A

QUESTION 9 #

Which service provides a virtually unlimited amount of online highly durable object storage?

A. Amazon Redshift
B. Amazon Elastic File System (Amazon EFS)
C. Amazon Elastic Container Service (Amazon ECS)
D. Amazon S3
Correct Answer: D
Reference: https://aws.amazon.com/what-is-cloud-object-storage/

QUESTION 10 #

What time-savings advantage is offered with the use of Amazon Rekognition?

A. Amazon Rekognition provides automatic watermarking of images.
B. Amazon Rekognition provides automatic detection of objects appearing in pictures.
C. Amazon Rekognition provides the ability to resize millions of images automatically.
D. Amazon Rekognition uses Amazon Mechanical Turk to allow humans to bid on object detection jobs.
Correct Answer: B

Rekognition Image is an image recognition service that detects objects, scenes, and faces; extracts text; recognizes
celebrities; and identifies inappropriate content in images. It also allows you to search and
compare faces. Rekognition Image is based on the same proven, highly scalable, deep learning technology developed
by Amazon\\’s computer vision scientists to analyze billions of images daily for Prime Photos.
Reference: https://aws.amazon.com/rekognition/faqs/

QUESTION 11 #

Management at a large company wants to avoid long-term contracts and is interested in AWS moving from fixed costs to variable costs.

What is the value proposition of AWS for this company?

A. Economy of scale
B. Pay-as-you-go pricing
C. Volume discounts
D. Cost optimization
Correct Answer: C

QUESTION 12 #

Which are the benefits of using Amazon RDS over Amazon EC2 when running relational databases on AWS? (Choose two.)

A. Automated backups
B. Schema management
C. Indexing of tables
D. Software patching
E. Extract, transform, and load (ETL) management
Correct Answer: AD
Reference: https://docs.aws.amazon.com/AmazonRDS/latest/UserGuide/Welcome.html

QUESTION 13 #

Which of the following can an AWS customer use to launch a new Amazon Relational Database Service (Amazon RDS) cluster?

A. AWS Concierge
B. AWS CloudFormation
C. Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3)
D. Amazon EC2 Auto Scaling E. AWS Management Console
Correct Answer: E

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