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QUESTION 1
You need to have a cloud security device which would allow to generate encryption keys based on FIPS 140-2 Level 3.
Which of the following can be used for this purpose.
Please select:
A. AWS KMS
B. AWS Customer Keys
C. AWS managed keys
D. AWS Cloud HSM
Correct Answer: AD
AWS Key Management Service (KMS) now uses FIPS 140-2 validated hardware security modules (HSM) and supports
FIPS 140-2 validated endpoints, which provide independent assurances about the confidentiality and integrity of your
keys. All master keys in AWS KMS regardless of their creation date or origin are automatically protected using FIPS
140-2 validated HSMs. defines four levels of security, simply named “Level 1\\’\\’ to “Level 4”. It does not specify in detail
what level of security is required by any particular application. ?FIPS 140-2 Level 1 the lowest, imposes very limited
requirements; loosely, all components must be “production-grade” anc various egregious kinds of insecurity must be
absent ?FIPS 140-2 Level 2 adds requirements for physical tamper-evidence and role-based authentication. ?FIPS
140-2 Level 3 adds requirements for physical tamper-resistance (making it difficult for attackers to gain access to
sensitive information contained in the module) and identity- based authentication, and for a physical or logical
separation between the interfaces by which “critical security parameters” enter and leave the module, and its other
interfaces. ?FIPS 140-2 Level 4 makes the physical security requirements more stringent and requires robustness
against environmental attacks. AWSCIoudHSM provides you with a FIPS 140-2 Level 3 validated single-tenant HSM
cluster in your Amazon Virtual Private Cloud (VPQ to store and use your keys. You have exclusive control over how
your keys are used via an authentication mechanism independent from AWS. You interact with keys in your AWS
CloudHSM cluster similar to the way you interact with your applications running in Amazon EC2. AWS KMS allows you
to create and control the encryption keys used by your applications and supported AWS services in multiple regions
around the world from a single console. The service uses a FIPS 140-2 validated HSM to protect the security of your
keys. Centralized management of all your keys in AWS KMS lets you enforce who can use your keys under which
conditions, when they get rotated, and who can manage them. AWS KMS HSMs are validated at level 2 overall and at
level 3 in the following areas:
1.
Cryptographic Module Specification
2.
Roles, Services, and Authentication
3.
Physical Security
4.
Design Assurance So I think that we can have 2 answers for this question. Both A and D. https://aws.amazon.com/blo15s/security/aws-key-management-service-now-ffers-flps-140-2-validatedcryptographic-m-enabling-easier-adoption-of-theservice-for-regulated-workloads/ https://aws.amazon.com/cloudhsm/faqs/ https://aws.amazon.com/kms/faqs/
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RPS The AWS Documentation mentions the following AWS CloudHSM is a cloud-based
hardware security module (HSM) that enables you to easily generate and use your own encryption keys on the AWS
Cloud. With CloudHSM, you can manage your own encryption keys using FIPS 140-2 Level 3 validated HSMs.
CloudHSM offers you the flexibility to integrate with your applications using industry- standard APIs, such as PKCS#11,
Java Cryptography Extensions () CE). and Microsoft CryptoNG (CNG) libraries. CloudHSM is also standards-compliant
and enables you to export all of your keys to most other commercially-available HSMs. It is a fully-managed service that
automates time-consuming administrative tasks for you, such as hardware provisioning, software patching, highavailability, and backups. CloudHSM also enables you to scale quickly by adding and removing HSM capacity ondemand, with no up-front costs. All other options are invalid since AWS Cloud HSM is the prime service that offers FIPS
140-2 Level 3 compliance For more information on CloudHSM, please visit the following url
https://aws.amazon.com/cloudhsm; The correct answers are: AWS KMS, AWS Cloud HSM

QUESTION 2
A company has a forensic logging use case whereby several hundred applications running on Docker on EC2 need to
send logs to a central location. The Security Engineer must create a logging solution that is able to perform real-time
analytics on the log files, grants the ability to replay events, and persists data.
Which AWS Services, together, can satisfy this use case? (Select two.)
A. Amazon Elasticsearch
B. Amazon Kinesis
C. Amazon SQS
D. Amazon CloudWatch
E. Amazon Athena
Correct Answer: AB
https://docs.aws.amazon.com/whitepapers/latest/aws-overview/analytics.html#amazon-athena

QUESTION 3
A company has an AWS account and allows a third-party contractor, who uses another AWS account, to assume
certain IAM roles. The company wants to ensure that IAM roles can be assumed by the contractor only if the contractor
has multi-factor authentication enabled on their IAM user accounts.
What should the company do to accomplish this?
A. Add the following condition to the IAM policy attached to all IAM roles:
“Effect”: “Deny”,
“Condition” : { “BoolItExists” : { “aws:MultiFactorAuthPresent” : false } }
B. Add the following condition to the IAM policy attached to all IAM roles:
“Effect”: “Deny”,
“Condition” : { “Bool” : { “aws:MultiFactorAuthPresent” : false } }
C. Add the following condition to the IAM policy attached to all IAM roles:
“Effect”: “Allow”,
“Condition” : { “Null” : { “aws:MultiFactorAuthPresent” : false } }
D. Add the following condition to the IAM policy attached to all IAM roles:
“Effect”: “Allow”,
“Condition” : { “BoolItExists” : { “aws:MultiFactorAuthPresent” : false } }
Correct Answer: A
Reference: https://aws-orgs.readthedocs.io/_/downloads/en/latest/pdf/ (18)

QUESTION 4
Your company is planning on using bastion hosts for administering the servers in AWS. Which of the following is the
best description of a bastion host from a security perspective?
Please select:
A. A Bastion host should be on a private subnet and never a public subnet due to security concerns
B. A Bastion host sits on the outside of an internal network and is used as a gateway into the private network and is
considered the critical strong point of the network
C. Bastion hosts allow users to log in using RDP or SSH and use that session to S5H into internal network to access
private subnet resources.
D. A Bastion host should maintain extremely tight security and monitoring as it is available to the public
Correct Answer: C
A bastion host is a special purpose computer on a network specifically designed and configured to withstand attacks.
The computer generally hosts a single application, for example a proxy server, and all other services are removed or
limited to reduce the threat to the computer. In AWS, A bastion host is kept on a public subnet. Users log on to the
bastion host via SSH or RDP and then use that session to manage other hosts in the private subnets. Options A and B
are invalid because the bastion host needs to sit on the public network. Option D is invalid because bastion hosts are
not used for monitoring For more information on bastion hosts, just browse to the below URL:
https://docsaws.amazon.com/quickstart/latest/linux-bastion/architecture.html The correct answer is: Bastion hosts allow
users to log in using RDP or SSH and use that session to SSH into the internal network to access private subnet
resources

QUESTION 5
You have an S3 bucket defined in AWS. You want to ensure that you encrypt the data before sending it across the wire.
What is the best way to achieve this?
Please select:
A. Enable server side encryption for the S3 bucket. This request will ensure that the data is encrypted first.
B. Use the AWS Encryption CLI to encrypt the data first
C. Use a Lambda function to encrypt the data before sending it to the S3 bucket.
D. Enable client encryption for the bucket
Correct Answer: B
One can use the AWS Encryption CLI to encrypt the data before sending it across to the S3 bucket. Options A and C
are invalid because this would still mean that data is transferred in plain text Option D is invalid because you cannot just
enable client-side encryption for the S3 bucket For more information on Encrypting and Decrypting data, please visit the
below URL: https://aws.amazonxom/blogs/securirv/how4o-encrvpt-and-decrypt-your-data-with-the-aws-encryption-cl
The correct answer is: Use the AWS Encryption CLI to encrypt the data first


QUESTION 6
An application is designed to run on an EC2 Instance. The applications need to work with an S3 bucket. From a
security perspective, what is the ideal way for the EC2 instance/ application to be configured?
Please select:
A. Use the AWS access keys ensuring that they are frequently rotated.
B. Assign an IAM user to the application that has specific access to only that S3 bucket
C. Assign an IAM Role and assign it to the EC2 Instance
D. Assign an IAM group and assign it to the EC2 Instance
Correct Answer: C
The below diagram from the AWS whitepaper shows the best security practice of allocating a role that has access to
the S3 bucket

SCS-C01 exam questions-q6

Options A, B, and D are invalid because using users, groups or access keys is invalid security practice when giving
access to resources from other AWS resources. For more information on the Security Best practices, please visit the
following URL: https://d1.awsstatic.com/whitepapers/Security/AWS Security Best Practices.pdl The correct answer is:
Assign an IAM Role and assign it to the EC2 Instance


QUESTION 7
Every application in a company\\’s portfolio has a separate AWS account for development and production. The security
team wants to prevent the root user and all IAM users in the production accounts from accessing a specific set of
unneeded services. How can they control this functionality?
Please select:
A. Create a Service Control Policy that denies access to the services. Assemble all production accounts in an
organizational unit. Apply the policy to that organizational unit.
B. Create a Service Control Policy that denies access to the services. Apply the policy to the root account.
C. Create an IAM policy that denies access to the services. Associate the policy with an IAM group and enlist all users
and the root users in this group.
D. Create an IAM policy that denies access to the services. Create a Config Rule that checks that all users have the
policy m assigned. Trigger a Lambda function that adds the policy when found missing.
Correct Answer: A
As an administrator of the master account of an organization, you can restrict which AWS services and individual API
actions the users and roles in each member account can access. This restriction even overrides the administrators of
member accounts in the organization. When AWS Organizations blocks access to a service or API action for a member
account a user or role in that account can\\’t access any prohibited service or API action, even if an administrator of a
member account explicitly grants such permissions in an IAM policy. Organization permissions overrule account
permissions. Option B is invalid because service policies cannot be assigned to the root account at the account level.
Options C and D are invalid because IAM policies alone at the account level would not be able to suffice the requirement
The correct answer is: Create a Service Control Policy that denies access to the services. Assemble all production
accounts in an organizational unit. Apply the policy to that organizational unit

QUESTION 8
An EC2 Instance hosts a Java-based application that accesses a DynamoDB table. This EC2 Instance is currently serving
production-based users. Which of the following is a secure way of ensuring that the EC2 Instance access the Dynamo
table
Please select:
A. Use IAM Roles with permissions to interact with DynamoDB and assign it to the EC2 Instance
B. Use KMS keys with the right permissions to interact with DynamoDB and assign it to the EC2 Instance
C. Use IAM Access Keys with the right permissions to interact with DynamoDB and assign it to the EC2 Instance
D. Use IAM Access Groups with the right permissions to interact with DynamoDB and assign it to the EC2 Instance
Correct Answer: A
To always ensure secure access to AWS resources from EC2 Instances, always ensure to assign a Role to the EC2
Instance Option B is invalid because KMS keys are not used as a mechanism for providing EC2 Instances access to
AWS services. Option C is invalid Access keys is not a safe mechanism for providing EC2 Instances access to AWS
services. Option D is invalid because there is no way access groups can be assigned to EC2 Instances.
For more information on IAM Roles, please refer to the below URL:
https://docs.aws.amazon.com/IAM/latest/UserGuide/idroles.html The correct answer is: Use IAM Roles with
permissions to interact with DynamoDB and assign it to the EC2 Instance

QUESTION 9
A company\\’s Security Officer is concerned about the risk of AWS account root user logins and has assigned a Security
Engineer to implement a notification solution for near-real-time alerts upon account root user logins.
How should the Security Engineer meet these requirements?
A. Create a cron job that runs a script lo download the AWS IAM security credentials We. parse the file for account root
user logins and email the Security team\\’s distribution 1st
B. Run AWS CloudTrail logs through Amazon CloudWatch Events to detect account roo4 user logins and trigger an
AWS Lambda function to send an Amazon SNS notification to the Security team\\’s distribution list.
C. Save AWS CloudTrail logs to an Amazon S3 bucket in the Security team\\’s account Process the CloudTrail logs with
the Security Engineer\\’s logging solution for account root user logins Send an Amazon SNS notification to the Security
team upon encountering the account root user login events
D. Save VPC Plow Logs to an Amazon S3 bucket in the Security team\\’s account and process the VPC Flow Logs with
their logging solutions for account root user logins Send an Amazon SNS notification to the Security team upon
encountering the account root user login events
Correct Answer: B


QUESTION 10
Your company hosts critical data in an S3 bucket. There is a requirement to ensure that all data is encrypted. There is
also metadata about the information stored in the bucket that needs to be encrypted as well. Which of the below
measures would you take to ensure that the metadata is encrypted?
Please select:
A. Put the metadata as metadata for each object in the S3 bucket and then enable S3 Server side encryption.
B. Put the metadata as metadata for each object in the S3 bucket and then enable S3 Server KMS encryption.
C. Put the metadata in a DynamoDB table and ensure the table is encrypted during creation time.
D. Put thp metadata in thp S3 hurkpf itself.
Correct Answer: C
Option A ,B and D are all invalid because the metadata will not be encrypted in any case and this is a key requirement
from the question. One key thing to note is that when the S3 bucket objects are encrypted, the meta data is not
encrypted. So the best option is to use an encrypted DynamoDB table Important All GET and PUT requests for an object protected by AWS KMS will fail if they are not made via SSL or by using SigV4. SSE-KMS encrypts only the
object data. Any object metadata is not encrypted. For more information on using KMS encryption for S3, please refer to
the below URL: https://docs.aws.amazon.com/AmazonS3/latest/dev/UsingKMSEncryption.html The correct answer is: Put
the metadata in a DynamoDB table and ensure the table is encrypted during creation time.

QUESTION 11
A company is hosting a website that must be accessible to users for HTTPS traffic. Also port 22 should be open for
administrative purposes. The administrator\\’s workstation has a static IP address of 203.0.113.1/32. Which of the
following security group configurations are the MOST secure but still functional to support these requirements? Choose
2 answers from the options given below
A. Port 443 coming from 0.0.0.0/0
B. Port 443 coming from 10.0.0.0/16
C. Port 22 coming from 0.0.0.0/0
D. Port 22 coming from 203.0.113.1/32
Correct Answer: AD
Since HTTPS traffic is required for all users on the Internet, Port 443 should be open on all IP addresses. For port 22,
the traffic should be restricted to an internal subnet. Option B is invalid, because this only allow traffic from a particular
CIDR block and not from the internet Option C is invalid because allowing port 22 from the internet is a security risk For
more information on AWS Security Groups, please visit the following URL
https://docs.aws.amazon.com/AWSEC2/latest/UserGuide/usins-network-secunty.htmll The correct answers are: Port
443 coming from 0.0.0.0/0, Port 22 coming from 203.0.113.1 /32


QUESTION 12
A company needs to encrypt all of its data stored in Amazon S3. The company wants to use AWS Key Management
Service (AWS KMS) to create and manage its encryption keys. The company\\’s security policies require the ability to
Import the company\\’s own key material for the keys, set an expiration date on the keys, and delete keys immediately, if
needed.
How should a security engineer set up AWS KMS to meet these requirements?
A. Configure AWS KMS and use a custom key store. Create a customer managed CMK with no key material Import the
company\\’s keys and key material into the CMK
B. Configure AWS KMS and use the default Key store Create an AWS managed CMK with no key material Import the
company\\’s key material into the CMK
C. Configure AWS KMS and use the default key store Create a customer managed CMK with no key material import the
company\\’s key material into the CMK
D. Configure AWS KMS and use a custom key store. Create an AWS managed CMK with no key material. Import the
company\\’s key material into the CMK.
Correct Answer: A

QUESTION 13
A company needs to retain log data archives for several years to be compliant with regulations. The log data is no
longer used, but it must be retained.
What is the MOST secure and cost-effective solution to meet these requirements?
A. Archive the data to Amazon S3 and apply a restrictive bucket policy to deny the s3:DeleteObject API.
B. Archive the data to Amazon S3 Glacier and apply a Vault Lock policy.
C. Archive the data to Amazon S3 and replicated it to a second bucket in a second AWS Region. Choose the S3
Standard-Infrequent Access (S3 Standard-IA) storage class and apply a restrictive bucket policy to deny the
s3:DeleteObject API.
D. Migrate the log data to a 16 TB Amazon Elastic Block Store (Amazon EBS) volume. Create a snapshot of the EBS
volume.
Correct Answer: C

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QUESTION 1
A company\\’s website hosted on Amazon EC2 instances processes classified data stored in Amazon S3 Due to
security concerns, the company requires a private and secure connection between its EC2 resources and Amazon S3
Which solution meets these requirements?
A. Set up S3 bucket policies to allow access from a VPC endpoint.
B. Set up an IAM policy to grant read-write access to the S3 bucket.
C. Set up a NAT gateway to access resources outside the private subnet.
D. Set up an access key ID and a secret access key to access the S3 bucket
Correct Answer: A
Reference: https://docs.aws.amazon.com/AmazonS3/latest/dev/access-control-overview.html


QUESTION 2
A company plans to deploy a new application in AWS that reads and writes information to a database. The company
wants to deploy the application in two different AWS Regions with each application writing to a database in their Region.
The databases in the Two Regions needs to keep We data synchronized What should be used to meet these
requirements?
A. Use Amazon Athena with Amazon S3 Cross-Region Replication
B. Use AWS Database Migration Service (AWS DMS] with change data capture between an RDS for MySQL cluster in
each Region
C. Use Amazon DynamoDB with global tables
D. Use Amazon RDS for PostgreSQL cluster with a Cross-Region Read Replica
Correct Answer: A

QUESTION 3
A company has copied 1 PB of data from a colocation facility to an Amazon S3 bucket in the us-east-1 Region using an
AWS Direct Connect link. The company now wants to copy the data to another S3 bucket in the us-west-2 Region. The
colocation facility does not allow the use AWS Snowball. What should a solutions architect recommend to accomplish
this?
A. Order a Snowball Edge device to copy the data from one Region to another Region.
B. Transfer contents from the source S3 bucket to a target S3 bucket using the S3 console.
C. Use the aws S3 sync command to copy data from the source bucket to the destination bucket.
D. Add a cross-Region replication configuration to copy objects across S3 buckets in different Reg.
Correct Answer: B


QUESTION 4
A company has a large dataset for its online advertising business stored in an Amazon RDS for MySQL
DB instance in a single Availability Zone. The company wants business reporting queries to run without
impacting the write operations to the production DB instance.
Which solution meets these requirements?
A. Deploy RDS read replicas to process the business reporting queries.
B. Scale out the DB instance horizontally by placing it behind an Elastic Load Balancer
C. Scale up the DB instance to a larger instance type to handle write operations and queries.
D. Deploy the DB instance in multiple Availability Zones to process the business reporting queries.
Correct Answer: A


QUESTION 5
A company wants to deploy an additional Amazon Aurora MySQL DB cluster for development purposes. The cluster will
be used several times a week for a few minutes upon to debug production query issues. The company wants to keep
overhead low for this resource. Which solution meets the company\\’s requirements MOST cost-effectively?
A. Purchas a Reserved Instance for the DB instances.
B. Run the DB instances on Aurora Serverless
C. Create a stop/start schedule for the DB instances.
D. Create an AWS Lambda function to stop DB instances it there are no active connections
Correct Answer: D

QUESTION 6
A solutions architect is designing a customer-facing application. The application is expected to have a variable amount
of reads and writes depending on the time of year and clearly defined access patterns throughout the year.
Management requires that database auditing and scaling be managed in the AWS Cloud. The Recovery Point Objective
(RPO) must be less than 5 hours. Which solutions can accomplish this? (Select TWO.)
A. Use Amazon DynamoDB with auto scaling. Use on-demand backups and AWS CloudTrail.
B. Use Amazon DynamoDB with auto scaling. Use on-demand backups and Amazon DynamoDB Streams.
C. Use Amazon Redshift Configure concurrency scaling. Enable audit logging. Perform database snapshots every 4
hours.
D. Use Amazon RDS with Provisioned IOPS. Enable the database auditing parameter. Perform database snapshots
every 5 hours.
E. Use Amazon RDS with auto scaling. Enable the database auditing parameter. Configure the backup retention period
to at least 1 day.
Correct Answer: AB


QUESTION 7
A company has a build server that is in an Auto Scaling group and often has multiple Linux instances running. The build
server requires consistent shared NFS storage for jobs and configurations. Which storage option should a solution
architect recommend?
A. Amazon S3
B. Amazon FSx
C. Amazon Elastic Block Store (Amazon EBS)
D. Amazon Elastic File System (Amazon EFS)
Correct Answer: D

QUESTION 8
As part of budget planning, management wants a report of AWS billed items listed by user. The data will
be used to create department budgets. A solutions architect needs to determine the most efficient way to
obtain this report information.
Which solution meets these requirements?
A. Run a query with Amazon Athena to generate the report.
B. Create a report in Cost Explorer and download the report.
C. Access the bill details from the billing dashboard and download the bill.
D. Modify a cost budget in AWS Budgets to alert with Amazon Simple Email Service (Amazon SES).
Correct Answer: D


QUESTION 9
A company is running its application in a single region on Amazon EC2 with Amazon Elastic Block Store
(Amazon EBS) and S3 as part of the storage design.
What should be done to reduce data transfer costs?
A. Create a copy of the compute environment in another AWS Region
B. Convert the application to run on [email protected]
C. Create an Amazon CloudFront distribution with Amazon S3 as the origin
D. Replicate Amazon S3 data to buckets in AWS Regions closer to the requester.
Correct Answer: C

QUESTION 10
The financial application at a company stores monthly reports in an Amazon S3 bucket. The vice president of finance
has mandated that all access to these reports be logged and that any modifications to the log files be detected Which
actions can a solutions architect take to meet these requirements7
A. Use S3 server access logging on the bucket that houses the reports with the read and write data events and log file
validation options enabled.
B. Use S3 server access logging on the bucket that houses the reports with the read and write management events and
log file validation options enabled
C. Use AWS CloudTrail to create a new trail. Configure the trail to log read and write data events on the S3 bucket that
houses the reports Log these events to a new bucket, and enable log file validation
D. Use AWS CloudTrail to create a new trail. Configure the trail to log read and write management events on the S3
bucket that houses the reports. Log these events to a new bucket, and enable log file validation.
Correct Answer: C


QUESTION 11
A company wants to migrate la accounting system from an on-premises data center to the AWS Cloud in a single AWS
Region Data security and an immutable audit log are the top priorities. The company must monitor all AWS activities for
compliance auditing. The company has enabled AWS CloudTrail but wants to make sure it meets these requirements
Which actions should a solutions architect take to protect and secure CloudTrail? (Select TWO.)
A. Enable CloudTrail log tile validation
B. Install the CloudTrail Processing Library
C. Enable logging of insights events in CloudTrail
D. Enable custom logging from the on-premises resources
E. Create an AWS Config rule to monitor whether CloudTrail is configured to use server-side encryption with AWS KMS
managed encryption keys (SSE-KMS)
Correct Answer: CE

QUESTION 12
A solutions architect is helping a developer design a new ecommerce shopping cart application using AWS services.
The developer is unsure of the current database schema and expects to make changes as the ecommerce site grows.
The solution needs to be highly resilient and capable of automatically scaling read and write capacity. Which database
solution meets these requirements?
A. Amazon Aurora PostgreSQL
B. Amazon DynamoDB with on-demand enabled
C. Amazon DynamoDB with DynamoDB Streams enabled
D. Amazon SQS and Amazon Aurora PostgreSQL
Correct Answer: A
https://docs.aws.amazon.com/amazondynamodb/latest/developerguide/bp-general-nosql-design.html


QUESTION 13
A product team is creating a new application that will store a large amount of data The data will be analyzed hourly and
modified by multiple Amazon EC2 Linux instances The application team believes the amount of space needed will
continue to grow for the next 6 months Which set of actions should a solutions architect take to support these needs\\’?
A. Store the data in an Amazon EBS volume Mount the EBS volume on the application instances
B. Store the data in an Amazon EFS file system Mount the file system on the application instances
C. Store the data in Amazon S3 Glacier Update the vault policy to allow access to the application instances
D. Store the data in Amazon S3 Standard-Infrequent Access (S3 Standard-IA) Update the bucket policy to allow access
to the application instances
Correct Answer: B
Amazon Elastic File System Amazon Elastic File System (Amazon EFS) provides a simple, scalable, fully managed
elastic NFS file system for use with AWS Cloud services and on-premises resources. It is built to scale on demand to
petabytes without disrupting applications, growing and shrinking automatically as you add and remove files, eliminating
the need to provision and manage capacity to accommodate growth. Amazon EFS is designed to provide massively
parallel shared access to thousands of Amazon EC2 instances, enabling your applications to achieve high levels of
aggregate throughput and IOPS with consistent low latencies.
Amazon EFS is well suited to support a broad spectrum of use cases from home directories to business-critical
applications. Customers can use EFS to lift-and-shift existing enterprise applications to the AWS Cloud. Other use
cases include: big data analytics, web serving and content management, application development and testing, media
and entertainment workflows, database backups, and container storage. Amazon EFS is a regional service storing data
within and across multiple Availability Zones (AZs) for high availability and durability. Amazon EC2 instances can
access your file system across AZs, regions, and VPCs, while on-premises servers can access using AWS Direct
Connect or AWS VPN. https://aws.amazon.com/efs/

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QUESTION 1
A DevOps engineer is building a centralized CI/CD pipeline using AWS CodeBuild, AWS CodeDeploy, and Amazon S3.
The engineer is required to have the least privilege access and individual encryption at rest for all artifacts in Amazon S3.
The engineer must be able to prune old artifacts without the ability to download or read them.
The engineer has already completed the following steps:
1.
Created a unique AWS KMS CMK and S3 bucket for each project\\’s builds.
2.
Updated the S3 bucket policy to only allow uploads that use the associated KMS encryption.
Which final step should be taken to meet these requirements?
A. Update the attached IAM policies to allow access to the appropriate KMS key from the CodeDeploy role where the
application will be deployed.
B. Update the attached IAM policies to allow access to the appropriate KMS key from the EC2 instance roles where the
application will be deployed.
C. Update the CMK key policy to allow access to the appropriate KMS key from the CodeDeploy role where the
application will be deployed.
D. Update the CMK key policy to allow to the appropriate KMS key from the EC2 instance roles where the application
will be deployed.
Correct Answer: A

QUESTION 2
Your system uses a multi-master, multi-region DynamoDB configuration spanning two regions to achieve high
availablity. For the first time since launching your system, one of the AWS Regions in which you operate over went
down for 3 hours, and the failover worked correctly. However, after recovery, your users are experiencing strange bugs,
in which users on different sides of the globe see different data. What is a likely design issue that was not accounted for
when launching?
A. The system does not have Lambda Functor Repair Automatons, to perform table scans and chack for corrupted
partition blocks inside the Table in the recovered Region.
B. The system did not implement DynamoDB Table Defragmentation for restoring partition performance in the Region
that experienced an outage, so data is served stale.
C. The system did not include repair logic and request replay buffering logic for post-failure, to resynchronize data to the
Region that was unavailable for a number of hours.
D. The system did not use DynamoDB Consistent Read requests, so the requests in different areas are not utilizing
consensus across Regions at runtime.
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: When using multi-region DynamoDB systems, it is of paramount importance to make sure that all requests
made to one Region are replicated to the other. Under normal operation, the system in question would correctly perform
write replays into the other Region. If a whole Region went down, the system would be unable to perform these writes
for the period of downtime. Without buffering write requests somehow, there would be no way for the system to replay
dropped crossregion writes, and the requests would be serviced differently depending on the Region from which they
were served after recovery.
Reference: http://docs.aws.amazon.com/amazondynamodb/latest/developerguide/Streams.CrossRegionRepl.html

QUESTION 3
A DevOps Engineer is using AWS CodeDeploy across a fleet of Amazon EC2 instances in an EC2 Auto Scaling group.
The associated CodeDeploy deployment group, which is integrated with EC2 Auto Scaling, is configured to perform inplace deployments with CodeDeployDefault.OneAtATime. During an ongoing new deployment, the Engineer discovers
that, although the overall deployment finished successfully, two out of five instances have the previous application
revision deployed. The other three instances have the newest application revision. What is likely causing this issue?
A. The two affected instances failed to fetch the new deployment.
B. A failed AfterInstall lifecycle event hook caused the CodeDeploy agent to roll back to the previous version on the
affected instances.
C. The CodeDeploy agent was not installed in two affected instances.
D. EC2 Auto Scaling launched two new instances while the new deployment had not yet finished, causing the previous
version to be deployed on the affected instances.
Correct Answer: D


QUESTION 4
Your company needs to automate 3 layers of a large cloud deployment. You want to be able to track this
deployment\\’s evolution as it changes over time, and carefully control any alterations.
What is a good way to automate a stack to meet these requirements?
A. Use OpsWorks Stacks with three layers to model the layering in your stack.
B. Use CloudFormation Nested Stack Templates, with three child stacks to represent the three logical layers of your
cloud.
C. Use AWS Config to declare a configuration set that AWS should roll out to your cloud.
D. Use Elastic Beanstalk Linked Applications, passing the important DNS entires between layers using the metadata
interface.
Correct Answer: B
Only CloudFormation allows source controlled, declarative templates as the basis for stack automation.
Nested Stacks help achieve clean separation of layers while simultaneously providing a method to control
all layers at once when needed.
Reference:
https://blogs.aws.amazon.com/application-management/post/Tx1T9JYQOS8AB9I/Use-Nested-Stacks-toCreateReusable-Templates-and-Support-Role-Specialization

QUESTION 5
A Development team uses AWS CodeCommit for source code control. Developers apply their changes to various
feature branches and create pull requests to move those changes to the master branch when they are ready for
production. A direct push to the master branch should not be allowed. The team applied the AWS managed policy
AWSCodeCommitPowerUser to the Developers’ IAM Rote, but now members are able to push to the master branch
directly on every repository in the AWS account. What actions should be taken to restrict this?
A. Create an additional policy to include a deny rule for the codecommit:GitPushaction, and include a restriction for the
specific repositories in the resource statement with a condition for the master reference.
B. Remove the IAM policy and add an AWSCodeCommitReadOnlypolicy. Add an allow rule for the codecommit:GitPush
action for the specific repositories in the resource statement with a condition for the master reference.
C. Modify the IAM policy and include a deny rule for the codecommit:GitPushaction for the specific repositories in the
resource statement with a condition for the master reference.
D. Create an additional policy to include an allow rule for the codecommit:GitPushaction and include a restriction for the
specific repositories in the resource statement with a condition for the feature branches reference.
Correct Answer: A
Reference:
https://aws.amazon.com/pt/blogs/devops/refining-access-to-branches-in-aws-codecommit/

QUESTION 6
Your system automatically provisions EIPs to EC2 instances in a VPC on boot. The system provisions the whole VPC
and stack at once. You have two of them per VPC. On your new AWS account, your attempt to create a Development
environment failed, after successfully creating Staging and Production environments in the same region. What
happened?
A. You didn\\’t choose the Development version of the AMI you are using.
B. You didn\\’t set the Development flag to true when deploying EC2 instances.
C. You hit the soft limit of 5 EIPs per region and requested a 6th.
D. You hit the soft limit of 2 VPCs per region and requested a 3rd.
Correct Answer: C
There is a soft limit of 5 EIPs per Region for VPC on new accounts. The third environment could not allocate the 6th
EIP. Reference: http://docs.aws.amazon.com/general/latest/gr/aws_service_limits.html#limits_vpc

QUESTION 7
A DevOps team manages an API running on-premises that serves as a backend for an Amazon API Gateway endpoint.
Customers have been complaining about high response latencies, which the development team has verified using the
API Gateway latency metrics in Amazon CloudWatch. To identify the cause, the team needs to collect relevant data
without introducing additional latency.
Which actions should be taken to accomplish this? (Choose two.)
A. Install the CloudWatch agent server side and configure the agent to upload relevant logs to CloudWatch.
B. Enable AWS X-Ray tracing in API Gateway, modify the application to capture request segments, and upload those
segments to X-Ray during each request.
C. Enable AWS X-Ray tracing in API Gateway, modify the application to capture request segments, and use the X-Ray
daemon to upload segments to X-Ray.
D. Modify the on-premises application to send log information back to API Gateway with each request.
E. Modify the on-premises application to calculate and upload statistical data relevant to the API service requests to
CloudWatch metrics.
Correct Answer: CE


QUESTION 8
A DevOps engineer has been tasked with ensuring that all Amazon S3 buckets, except for those with the word “public”
in the name, allow access only to authorized users utilizing S3 bucket policies. The security team wants to be notified
when a bucket is created without the proper policy and for the policy to be automatically updated.
Which solutions will meet these requirements?
A. Create a custom AWS Config rule that will trigger an AWS Lambda function when an S3 bucket is created or
updated. Use the Lambda function to look for S3 buckets that should be private, but that do not have a bucket policy
that enforces privacy. When such a bucket is found, invoke a remediation action and use Amazon SNS to notify the
security team.
B. Create an Amazon EventBridge (Amazon CloudWatch Events) rule that triggers when an S3 bucket is created. Use
an AWS Lambda function to determine whether the bucket should be private. If the bucket should be private, update the
PublicAccessBlock configuration. Configure a second EventBridge (CloudWatch Events) rule to notify the security team
using Amazon SNS when PutBucketPolicy is called.
C. Create an Amazon S3 event notification that triggers when an S3 bucket is created that does not have the word
“public” in the name. Define an AWS Lambda function as a target for this notification and use the function to apply a
new default policy to the S3 bucket. Create an additional notification with the same filter and use Amazon SNS to send
an email to the security team.
D. Create an Amazon EventBridge (Amazon CloudWatch Events) rule that triggers when a new object is created in a
bucket that does not have the word “public” in the name. Target and use an AWS Lambda function to update the
PublicAccessBlock configuration. Create an additional notification with the same filter and use Amazon SNS to send an
email to the security team.
Correct Answer: D

QUESTION 9
An e-commerce company is running a web application in an AWS Elastic Beanstalk environment. In recent months, the
average load of the Amazon EC2 instances has been increased to handle more traffic. The company would like to
improve the scalability and resilience of the environment. The Development team has been asked to decouple longrunning tasks from the environment if the tasks can be executed asynchronously. Examples of these tasks include
confirmation emails when users are registered to the platform, and processing images or videos. Also, some of the
periodic tasks that are currently running within the web server should be offloaded.
What is the MOST time-efficient and integrated way to achieve this?
A. Create an Amazon SQS queue and send the tasks that should be decoupled from the Elastic Beanstalk web server
environment to the SQS queue. Create a fleet of EC2 instances under an Auto Scaling group. Use an AMI that contains
the application to process the asynchronous tasks, configure the application to listen for messages within the SQS
queue, and create periodic tasks by placing those into the cron in the operating system. Create an environment variable
within the Elastic Beanstalk environment with a value pointing to the SQS queue endpoint.
B. Create a second Elastic Beanstalk worker tier environment and deploy the application to process the asynchronous
tasks there. Send the tasks that should be decoupled from the original Elastic Beanstalk web server environment to the
auto-generated Amazon SQS queue by the Elastic Beanstalk worker environment. Place a cron.yaml file within the root
of the application source bundle for the worker environment for periodic tasks. Use environment links to link the web
server environment with the worker environment.
C. Create a second Elastic Beanstalk web server tier environment and deploy the application to process the
asynchronous tasks. Send the tasks that should be decoupled from the original Elastic Beanstalk web server to the autogenerated Amazon SQS queue by the second Elastic Beanstalk web server tier environment. Place a cron.yaml file
within the root of the application source bundle for the second web server tier environment with the necessary periodic
tasks. Use environment links to link both web server environments.
D. Create an Amazon SQS queue and send the tasks that should be decoupled from the Elastic Beanstalk web server
environment to the SQS queue. Create a fleet of EC2 instances under an Auto Scaling group. Install and configure the
application to listen for messages within the SQS queue from UserData and create periodic tasks by placing those into
the cron in the operating system. Create an environment variable within the Elastic Beanstalk web server environment
with a value pointing to the SQS queue endpoint.
Correct Answer: B

QUESTION 10
Your application requires a fault-tolerant, low-latency and repeatable method to load configurations files via
Auto Scaling when Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) instances launch.
Which approach should you use to satisfy these requirements?
A. Securely copy the content from a running Amazon EC2 instance.
B. Use an Amazon EC2 UserData script to copy the configurations from an Amazon Storage Services (S3) bucket.
C. Use a script via cfn-init to pull content hosted in an Amazon ElastiCache cluster.
D. Use a script via cfn-init to pull content hosted on your on-premises server.
E. Use an Amazon EC2 UserData script to pull content hosted on your on-premises server.
Correct Answer: B


QUESTION 11
An n-tier application requires a table in an Amazon RDS MySQL DB instance to be dropped and repopulated at each
deployment. This process can take several minutes and the web tier cannot come online until the process is complete.
Currently, the web tier is configured in an Amazon EC2 Auto Scaling group, with instances being terminated and
replaced at each deployment. The MySQL table is populated by running a SQL query through an AWS CodeBuild job.
What should be done to ensure that the web tier does not come online before the database is completely configured?
A. Use Amazon Aurora as a drop-in replacement for RDS MySQL. Use snapshots to populate the table with the correct
data.
B. Modify the launch configuration of the Auto Scaling group to pause user data execution for 600 seconds, allowing the
table to be populated.
C. Use AWS Step Functions to monitor and maintain the state of data population. Mark the database in service before
continuing with the deployment.
D. Use an EC2 Auto Scaling lifecycle hook to pause the configuration of the web tier until the table is populated.
Correct Answer: D

QUESTION 12
You need to replicate API calls across two systems in real-time. What tool should you use as a buffer and transport
the mechanism for API call events?
A. AWS SQS
B. AWS Lambda
C. AWS Kinesis
D. AWS SNS
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: AWS Kinesis is an event stream service. Streams can act as buffers and transport across systems for inorder programmatic events, making it ideal for replicating API calls across systems. A typical Amazon Kinesis Streams
application reads data from an Amazon Kinesis stream as data records. These applications can use the Amazon
Kinesis Client Library, and they can run on Amazon EC2 instances. The processed records can be sent to dashboards,
used to generate alerts, dynamically change pricing and advertising strategies, or send data to a variety of other AWS
services. For information about Streams features and pricing, see Amazon Kinesis Streams.
Reference:
http://docs.aws.amazon.com/kinesis/latest/dev/introduction.html


QUESTION 13
A DevOps Engineer is developing a deployment strategy that will allow for data-driven decisions before a feature is fully
approved for general availability. The current deployment process uses AWS CloudFormation and blue/green-style
deployments. The development team has decided that customers should be randomly assigned to groups, rather than
using a set percentage, and redirects should be avoided. What process should be followed to implement the new
deployment strategy?
A. Configure Amazon Route 53 weighted records for the blue and green stacks, with 50% of traffic configured to route to
each stack.
B. Configure Amazon CloudFront with an AWS [email protected] function to set a cookie when CloudFront receives a
request. Assign the user to a version A or B, and configure the web server to redirect to version A or B.
C. Configure Amazon CloudFront with an AWS [email protected] function to set a cookie when CloudFront receives a
request. Assign the user to a version A or B, then return the corresponding version to the viewer.
D. Configure Amazon Route 53 with an AWS Lambda function to set a cookie when Amazon CloudFront receives a
request. Assign the user to version A or B, then return the corresponding version to the viewer.
Correct Answer: C

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QUESTION 1
A company just migrated to Amazon Aurora PostgreSQL from an on-premises Oracle database. After the migration, the
company discovered there is a period of time every day around 3:00 PM where the response time of the application is
noticeably slower. The company has narrowed down the cause of this issue to the database and not the application.
Which set of steps should the Database Specialist take to most efficiently find the problematic PostgreSQL query?
A. Create an Amazon CloudWatch dashboard to show the number of connections, CPU usage, and disk space
consumption. Watch these dashboards during the next slow period.
B. Launch an Amazon EC2 instance, and install and configure an open-source PostgreSQL monitoring tool that will run
reports based on the output error logs.
C. Modify the logging database parameter to log all the queries related to locking in the database and then check the
logs after the next slow period for this information.
D. Enable Amazon RDS Performance Insights on the PostgreSQL database. Use the metrics to identify any queries that
are related to spikes in the graph during the next slow period.
Correct Answer: D


QUESTION 2
A company uses the Amazon DynamoDB table contractDB in us-east-1 for its contract system with the following
schema:
1.
orderID (primary key)
2.
timestamp (sort key)
3.
contract (map)
4.
createdBy (string)
5.
customerEmail (string)
After a problem in production, the operations team has asked a database specialist to provide an IAM policy to read
items from the database to debug the application. In addition, the developer is not allowed to access the value of the
customerEmail field to stay compliant.
Which IAM policy should the database specialist use to achieve these requirements?

DBS-C01 exam questions-q2

DBS-C01 exam questions-q2-2

DBS-C01 exam questions-q2-3

DBS-C01 exam questions-q2-4

A. Option A
B. Option B
C. Option C
D. Option D
Correct Answer: A

QUESTION 3
A company is moving its fraud detection application from on premises to the AWS Cloud and is using Amazon Neptune
for data storage. The company has set up a 1 Gbps AWS Direct Connect connection to migrate 25 TB of fraud detection
data from the on-premises data center to a Neptune DB instance. The company already has an Amazon S3 bucket and
an S3 VPC endpoint, and 80% of the company\\’s network bandwidth is available.
How should the company perform this data load?
A. Use an AWS SDK with a multipart upload to transfer the data from on premises to the S3 bucket. Use the Copy
command for Neptune to move the data in bulk from the S3 bucket to the Neptune DB instance.
B. Use AWS Database Migration Service (AWS DMS) to transfer the data from on premises to the S3 bucket. Use the
Loader command for Neptune to move the data in bulk from the S3 bucket to the Neptune DB instance.
C. Use AWS DataSync to transfer the data from on premises to the S3 bucket. Use the Loader command for Neptune to
move the data in bulk from the S3 bucket to the Neptune DB instance.
D. Use the AWS CLI to transfer the data from on premises to the S3 bucket. Use the Copy command for Neptune to
move the data in bulk from the S3 bucket to the Neptune DB instance.
Correct Answer: C


QUESTION 4
A company is building a new web platform where user requests trigger an AWS Lambda function that performs an insert
into an Amazon Aurora MySQL DB cluster. Initial tests with less than 10 users on the new platform yielded successful
execution and fast response times. However, upon more extensive tests with the actual target of 3,000 concurrent
users, Lambda functions are unable to connect to the DB cluster and receive too many connections errors. Which of the
following will resolve this issue?
A. Edit the my.cnf file for the DB cluster to increase max_connections
B. Increase the instance size of the DB cluster
C. Change the DB cluster to Multi-AZ
D. Increase the number of Aurora Replicas
Correct Answer: B

QUESTION 5
A large financial services company requires that all data be encrypted in transit. A Developer is attempting to connect to
an Amazon RDS DB instance using the company VPC for the first time with credentials provided by a Database
Specialist. Other members of the Development team can connect, but this user is consistently receiving an error
indicating a communications link failure. The Developer asked the Database Specialist to reset the password a number
of times, but the error persists. Which step should be taken to troubleshoot this issue?
A. Ensure that the database option group for the RDS DB instance allows ingress from the Developer machine\\’s IP
address
B. Ensure that the RDS DB instance\\’s subnet group includes a public subnet to allow the Developer to connect
C. Ensure that the RDS DB instance has not reached its maximum connections limit
D. Ensure that the connection is using SSL and is addressing the port where the RDS DB instance is listening for
encrypted connections
Correct Answer: B


QUESTION 6
A media company is using Amazon RDS for PostgreSQL to store user data. The RDS DB instance currently has a
publicly accessible setting enabled and is hosted in a public subnet. Following a recent AWS Well-Architected
Framework review, a Database Specialist was given new security requirements.
1.
Only certain on-premises corporate network IPs should connect to the DB instance.
2.
Connectivity is allowed from the corporate network only.
Which combination of steps does the Database Specialist need to take to meet these new requirements? (Choose
three.)
A. Modify the pg_hba.conf file. Add the required corporate network IPs and remove the unwanted IPs.
B. Modify the associated security group. Add the required corporate network IPs and remove the unwanted IPs.
C. Move the DB instance to a private subnet using AWS DMS.
D. Enable VPC peering between the application host running on the corporate network and the VPC associated with the
DB instance.
E. Disable the publicly accessible setting.
F. Connect to the DB instance using private IPs and a VPN.
Correct Answer: DEF

QUESTION 7
A company is using Amazon Aurora PostgreSQL for the backend of its application. The system users are complaining
that the responses are slow. A database specialist has determined that the queries to Aurora take longer during peak
times. With the Amazon RDS Performance Insights dashboard, the load in the chart for average active sessions is often above the line that denotes maximum CPU usage and the wait state shows that most wait events are IO:XactSync.
What should the company do to resolve these performance issues?
A. Add an Aurora Replica to scale the read traffic.
B. Scale up the DB instance class.
C. Modify applications to commit transactions in batches.
D. Modify applications to avoid conflicts by taking locks.
Correct Answer: A


QUESTION 8
An electric utility company wants to store power plant sensor data in an Amazon DynamoDB table. The utility company
has over 100 power plants and each power plant has over 200 sensors that send data every 2 seconds. The sensor
data includes time with milliseconds precision, a value, and a fault attribute if the sensor is malfunctioning. Power plants
are identified by a globally unique identifier. Sensors are identified by a unique identifier within each power plant. A
database specialist needs to design the table to support an efficient method of finding all faulty sensors within a given
power plant.
Which schema should the database specialist use when creating the DynamoDB table to achieve the fastest query time
when looking for faulty sensors?
A. Use the plant identifier as the partition key and the measurement time as the sort key. Create a global secondary
index (GSI) with the plant identifier as the partition key and the fault attribute as the sort key.
B. Create a composite of the plant identifier and sensor identifier as the partition key. Use the measurement time as the
sort key. Create a local secondary index (LSI) on the fault attribute.
C. Create a composite of the plant identifier and sensor identifier as the partition key. Use the measurement time as the
sort key. Create a global secondary index (GSI) with the plant identifier as the partition key and the fault attribute as the
sort key.
D. Use the plant identifier as the partition key and the sensor identifier as the sort key. Create a local secondary index
(LSI) on the fault attribute.
Correct Answer: B

QUESTION 9
A company is looking to migrate a 1 TB Oracle database from on-premises to an Amazon Aurora PostgreSQL DB
cluster. The company\\’s Database Specialist discovered that the Oracle database is storing 100 GB of large binary
objects (LOBs) across multiple tables. The Oracle database has a maximum LOB size of 500 MB with an average LOB
size of 350 MB. The Database Specialist has chosen AWS DMS to migrate the data with the largest replication
instances. How should the Database Specialist optimize the database migration using AWS DMS?
A. Create a single task using full LOB mode with a LOB chunk size of 500 MB to migrate the data and LOBs together
B. Create two tasks: task1 with LOB tables using full LOB mode with a LOB chunk size of 500 MB and task2 without
LOBs
C. Create two tasks: task1 with LOB tables using limited LOB mode with a maximum LOB size of 500 MB and task 2
without LOBs
D. Create a single task using limited LOB mode with a maximum LOB size of 500 MB to migrate data and LOBs
together
Correct Answer: C


QUESTION 10
An AWS CloudFormation stack that included an Amazon RDS DB instance was accidentally deleted and recent data
was lost. A Database Specialist needs to add RDS settings to the CloudFormation template to reduce the chance of
accidental instance data loss in the future.
Which settings will meet this requirement? (Choose three.)
A. Set DeletionProtection to True
B. Set MultiAZ to True
C. Set TerminationProtection to True
D. Set DeleteAutomatedBackups to False
E. Set DeletionPolicy to Delete
F. Set DeletionPolicy to Retain
Correct Answer: ACF
Reference: https://docs.aws.amazon.com/AWSCloudFormation/latest/UserGuide/aws-attributedeletionpolicy.html
https://aws.amazon.com/premiumsupport/knowledge-center/cloudformation-accidental-updates/

QUESTION 11
A company is running Amazon RDS for MySQL for its workloads. There is downtime when AWS operating system
patches are applied during the Amazon RDS-specified maintenance window.
What is the MOST cost-effective action that should be taken to avoid downtime?
A. Migrate the workloads from Amazon RDS for MySQL to Amazon DynamoDB
B. Enable cross-Region read replicas and direct read traffic to then when Amazon RDS is down
C. Enable a read replicas and direct read traffic to it when Amazon RDS is down
D. Enable an Amazon RDS for MySQL Multi-AZ configuration
Correct Answer: C


QUESTION 12
A company runs a customer relationship management (CRM) system that is hosted on-premises with a MySQL
database as the backend. A custom stored procedure is used to send email notifications to another system when data is
inserted into a table. The company has noticed that the performance of the CRM system has decreased due to
database reporting applications used by various teams. The company requires an AWS solution that would reduce
maintenance, improve performance, and accommodate the email notification feature.
Which AWS solution meets these requirements?
A. Use MySQL running on an Amazon EC2 instance with Auto Scaling to accommodate the reporting applications.
Configure a stored procedure and an AWS Lambda function that uses Amazon SES to send email notifications to the
other system.
B. Use Amazon Aurora MySQL in a multi-master cluster to accommodate the reporting applications. Configure Amazon
RDS event subscriptions to publish a message to an Amazon SNS topic and subscribe the other system\\’s email
address to the topic.
C. Use MySQL running on an Amazon EC2 instance with a read replica to accommodate the reporting applications.
Configure Amazon SES integration to send email notifications to the other system.
D. Use Amazon Aurora MySQL with a read replica for the reporting applications. Configure a stored procedure and an
AWS Lambda function to publish a message to an Amazon SNS topic. Subscribe the other system\\’s email address to
the topic.
Correct Answer: D


QUESTION 13
A ride-hailing application uses an Amazon RDS for MySQL DB instance as persistent storage for bookings. This
application is very popular and the company expects a tenfold increase in the user base in next few months. The
application experiences more traffic during the morning and evening hours.
This application has two parts:
1.
An in-house booking component that accepts online bookings that directly correspond to simultaneous requests from
users.
2.
A third-party customer relationship management (CRM) component used by customer care representatives. The CRM
uses queries to access booking data.
A database specialist needs to design a cost-effective database solution to handle this workload.
Which solution meets these requirements?
A. Use Amazon ElastiCache for Redis to accept the bookings. Associate an AWS Lambda function to capture changes
and push the booking data to the RDS for MySQL DB instance used by the CRM.
B. Use Amazon DynamoDB to accept the bookings. Enable DynamoDB Streams and associate an AWS Lambda
function to capture changes and push the booking data to an Amazon SQS queue. This triggers another Lambda
function that pulls data from Amazon SQS and writes it to the RDS for MySQL DB instance used by the CRM.
C. Use Amazon ElastiCache for Redis to accept the bookings. Associate an AWS Lambda function to capture changes
and push the booking data to an Amazon Redshift database used by the CRM.
D. Use Amazon DynamoDB to accept the bookings. Enable DynamoDB Streams and associate an AWS Lambda
function to capture changes and push the booking data to Amazon Athena, which is used by the CRM.
Correct Answer: A

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QUESTION 1
What AWS team assists customers with accelerating cloud adoption through paid engagements in any of several
specialty practice areas?
A. AWS Enterprise Support
B. AWS Solutions Architects
C. AWS Professional Services
D. AWS Account Managers
Correct Answer: C
Reference: https://aws.amazon.com/professional-services/


QUESTION 2
Which of the following is an AWS Cloud architecture design principle?
A. Implement single points of failure.
B. Implement loose coupling.
C. Implement monolithic design.
D. Implement vertical scaling.
Correct Answer: B
Loose coupling between services can also be done through asynchronous integration. It involves one component that
generates events and another that consumes them. The two components do not integrate through direct point-to-point
interaction, but usually through an intermediate durable storage layer. This approach decouples the two components
and introduces additional resiliency. So, for example, if a process that is reading messages from the queue fails,
messages can still be added to the queue to be processed when the system recovers.
Reference: https://www.botmetric.com/blog/aws-cloud-architecture-design-principles/


QUESTION 3
Which of the following acts as an instance-level firewall to control inbound and outbound access?
A. Network access control list
B. Security groups
C. AWS Trusted Advisor
D. Virtual private gateways
Correct Answer: B


QUESTION 4
The AWS 1AM best practice for granting least privilege is to.
A. apply an 1AM policy to an IAN1 group and limit the size of the group.
B. require multi-factor authentication (MFA) for all 1AM users
C. require each 1AM user who has different permissions to have multiple passwords.
D. apply an 1AM policy only to IAM users who require it
Correct Answer: A

QUESTION 5
Which AWS service or feature allows a user to set up consolidated billing?
A. AWS Billing Management Console
B. AWS Organizations
C. AWS Cost and Usage Report
D. AWS Systems Manager
Correct Answer: B


QUESTION 6
What is a characteristic of Amazon S3 cross-region replication?
A. Both source and destination S3 buckets must have versioning disabled
B. The source and destination S3 buckets cannot be in different AWS Regions
C. S3 buckets configured for cross-region replication can be owned by a single AWS account or by different accounts
D. The source S3 bucket owner must have the source and destination AWS Regions disabled for their account
Correct Answer: C
Reference: https://docs.aws.amazon.com/AmazonS3/latest/dev/replication.html


QUESTION 7
Which pillar of the AWS well-architected framework refers to the ability of a system to recover from infrastructure or
service disruptions and dynamically acquire computing resources to meet demand?
A. Security
B. Reliability
C. Performance efficiency
D. Cost optimization
Correct Answer: B


QUESTION 8
Using AWS Config to record, audit, and evaluate changes to AWS resources to enable traceability is an example of
which AWS Well-Architected Framework pillar?
A. Security
B. Operational excellence
C. Performance efficiency
D. Cost optimization
Correct Answer: A
Reference: https://d1.awsstatic.com/whitepapers/architecture/AWS_Well-Architected_Framework.pdf (12)

QUESTION 9
Which AWS service or feature is used to send both text and email messages from distributed applications?
A. Amazon Simple Notification Service (Amazon SNS)
B. Amazon Simple Email Service (Amazon SES)
C. Amazon CloudWatch alerts
D. Amazon Simple Queue Service (Amazon SQS)
Correct Answer: D
Reference: https://aws.amazon.com/sns/faqs/

QUESTION 10
A user can optimize Amazon EC2 costs by performing which of the following tasks? (Choose two.)
A. Implementing Auto Scaling groups to add and remove instances based on demand.
B. Creating a policy to restrict IAM users from creating new instances.
C. Setting a budget to limit spending on EC2 instances using AWS Budgets.
D. Purchasing Reserved Instances.
E. Adding EC2 instances to a second AWS Region that is geographically close to the end users.
Correct Answer: BC


QUESTION 11
Which services are parts of the AWS serverless platform?
A. Amazon EC2, Amazon S3, Amazon Athena
B. Amazon Kinesis, Amazon SQS, Amazon EMR
C. AWS Step Functions, Amazon DynamoDB, Amazon SNS
D. Amazon Athena, Amazon Cognito, Amazon EC2
Correct Answer: C
AWS provides a set of fully managed services that you can use to build and run serverless applications. Serverless
applications don\\’t require provisioning, maintaining, and administering servers for backend components such as
compute, databases, storage, stream processing, message queueing, and more. You also no longer need to worry
about ensuring application fault tolerance and availability. Instead, AWS handles all of these capabilities for you.
Serverless platform includes: AWS lambda, Amazon S3, DynamoDB, API gateway, Amazon SNS, AWS step functions,
Amazon kinesis and developing tools and services.
Reference: https://aws.amazon.com/serverless/

QUESTION 12
Which AWS service provides the ability to manage infrastructure as code?
A. AWS CodePipeline
B. AWS CodeDeploy
C. AWS Direct Connect D. AWS CloudFormation
Correct Answer: D
AWS CloudFormation provides a common language for you to describe and provision all the infrastructure resources in
your cloud environment. CloudFormation allows you to use a simple text file to model and provision, in an automated
and secure manner, all the resources needed for your applications across all regions and accounts. This file serves as
the single source of truth for your cloud environment.
Reference: https://aws.amazon.com/cloudformation/

QUESTION 13
Which of the following is a fully managed MySQL-compatible database?
A. Amazon S3
B. Amazon DynamoDB
C. Amazon Redshift
D. Amazon Aurora
Correct Answer: D

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QUESTION 1
Over which of the following Ethernet standards does AWS Direct Connect link your internal network to an AWS Direct
Connect location?
A. Copper backplane cable
B. Twisted pair cable
C. Single mode fiber-optic cable
D. Shielded balanced copper cable
Correct Answer: C
Explanation:
AWS Direct Connect links your internal network to an AWS Direct Connect location over a standard 1
gigabit or 10 gigabit Ethernet single mode fiber-optic cable.
Reference: http://docs.aws.amazon.com/directconnect/latest/UserGuide/Welcome.html


QUESTION 2
A company has two redundant AWS Direct Connect connections to a VPC. The VPC is configured using BGP metrics
so that one Direct Connect connection is used as the primary traffic path. The company wants the primary Direct
Connect connection to fail to the secondary in less than one second.
What should be done to meet this requirement?
A. Configure BGP on the company\\’s router with a keep-alive to 300 ms and the BGP hold timer to 900 ms.
B. Enable Bidirectional Forwarding Detection (BFD) on the company\\’s router with a detection minimum interval of 300
ms and a BFD liveness detection multiplier of 3.
C. Enable Dead Peer Detection (DPD) on the company\\’s router with a detection minimum interval of 300 ms and a
DPD liveliness detection multiplier of 3.
D. Enable Bidirectional Forwarding Detection (BFD) echo mode on the company\\’s router and disable sending the
Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) IP packet requests.
Correct Answer: B
Reference: https://aws.amazon.com/directconnect/faqs/

QUESTION 3
Your organization uses a VPN to connect to your VPC but must upgrade to a 1-G AWS Direct Connect connection for
stability and performance. Your telecommunications provider has provisioned the circuit from your data center to an
AWS Direct Connect facility and needs information on how to cross-connect (e.g., which rack/port to connect).
What is the AWS-recommended procedure for providing this information?
A. Create a support ticket. Provide your AWS account number and telecommunications company\\’s name and where
you need the Direct Connect connection to terminate.
B. Create a new connection through your AWS Management Console and wait for an email from AWS with information.
C. Ask your telecommunications provider to contact AWS through an AWS Partner Channel. Provide your AWS account
number.
D. Contact an AWS Account Manager and provide your AWS account number, telecommunications company\\’s name,
and where you need the Direct Connect connection to terminate.
Correct Answer: A


QUESTION 4
Your company just purchased a domain using another registrar and wants to use the same nameservers as your current
domain hosted with AWS. How would this be achieved?
A. Every domain must have different nameservers.
B. In the API, create a Reusable Delegation Set.
C. Import the domain to your account and it will automatically set the same nameservers.
D. In the console, create a Reusable Delegation Set.
Correct Answer: B
Explanation:
You can\\’t create a reusable delegation set in the console. AWS does not provide the same nameservers to
new domains, but a reusable delegation set can be used with as many domains as you like.


QUESTION 5
What are two routing methods used by Route 53? (Choose two.)
A. RIP
B. Failover
C. Latency
D. AS_PATH
Correct Answer: BC
Explanation:
RIP is used for network routing and AS_PATH is used for BGP path manipulation.

QUESTION 6
A company is about to migrate an application from its on-premises data center to AWS. As part of the planning process,
the following requirements involving DNS have been identified.
1.
On-premises systems must be able to resolve the entries in an Amazon Route 53 private hosted zone.
2.
Amazon EC2 instances running in the organization\\’s VPC must be able to resolve the DNS names of on-premises
systems
The organization\\’s VPC uses the CIDR block 172.16.0.0/16.
Assuming that there is no DNS namespace overlap, how can these requirements be met?
A. Change the DHCP options set for the VPC to use both the Amazon-provided DNS server and the on-premises DNS
systems. Configure the on-premises DNS systems with a stub-zone, delegating the name server 172.16.0.2 as
authoritative for the Route 53 private hosted zone.
B. Deploy and configure a set of EC2 instances into the company VPC to act as DNS proxies. Configure the proxies to
forward queries for the on-premises domain to the on-premises DNS systems, and forward all other queries to
172.16.0.2. Change the DHCP options set for the VPC to use the new DNS proxies. Configure the on-premises DNS
systems with a stub-zone, delegating the name server
172.16.0.2 as authoritative for the Route 53 private hosted zone.
C. Deploy and configure a set of EC2 instances into the company VPC to act as DNS proxies. Configure the proxies to
forward queries for the on-premises domain to the on-premises DNS systems, and forward all other queries to the
Amazon-provided DNS server (172.16.0.2). Change the DHCP options set for the VPC to use the new DNS proxies.
Configure the on-premises DNS systems with a stub-zone, delegating the proxies as authoritative for the Route 53
private hosted zone.
D. Change the DHCP options set for the VPC to use both the on-premises DNS systems. Configure the on-premises
DNS systems with a stub-zone, delegating the Route 53 private hosted zone\\’s name servers as authoritative for the
Route 53 private hosted zone.
Correct Answer: C


QUESTION 7
A company is delivering web content from an Amazon EC2 instance in a public subnet with address 2001:db8:1:100::1.
Users report they are unable to access the web content. The VPC Flow Logs for the subnet contain the following
entries:
2 012345678912 eni-0596e500123456789 2001:db8:2:200::2 2001:db8:1:100::1 0 0 58 234 24336 1551299195
1551299434 ACCEPT OK 2 012345678912 eni-0596e500123456789 2001:db8:1:100::1 2001:db8:2:200::2 0 0 58 234
24336 1551299195 1551299434 REJECT OK
Which action will restore network reachability to the EC2 instance?
A. Update the security group associated with eni-0596e500123456789to permit inbound traffic.
B. Update the security group associated with eni-0596e500123456789to permit outbound traffic.
C. Update the network ACL associated with the subnet to permit inbound traffic.
D. Update the network ACL associated with the subnet to permit outbound traffic.
Correct Answer: C


QUESTION 8
You need to find the public IP address of an instance that you\\’re logged in to. What command would you use?
A. curl ftp://169.254.169.254/latest/meta-data/public-ipv4
B. scp localhost/latest/meta-data/public-ipv4
C. curl http://127.0.0.1/latest/meta-data/public-ipv4
D. curl http://169.254.169.254/latest/meta-data/public-ipv4
Correct Answer: D
Explanation: curl http://169.254.169.254/latest/meta-data/public-ipv4

QUESTION 9
What MTU is recommended for VPN and Direct Connect links?
A. 1500
B. 2000
C. 128
D. Jumbo Frames
Correct Answer: A
Explanation:
Jumbo frames will not pass through VPN and Direct Connect links using AWS connections. You must use
an MTU of 1500.


QUESTION 10
A company\\’s application runs in a VPC and stores sensitive data in Amazon S3. The application\\’s Amazon EC2
instances are located in a private subnet with a NAT gateway deployed in a public subnet to provide access to Amazon
S3. The S3 bucket is located in the same AWS Region as the EC2 instances. The company wants to ensure that this
bucket can be accessed only from the VPC where the application resides.
Which changes should a network engineer make to the architecture to meet these requirements?
A. Delete the existing S3 bucket and create a new S3 bucket inside the VPC in the private subnet. Configure the S3
security group to allow only the application instances to access the bucket.
B. Deploy an S3 VPC endpoint in the VPC where the application resides. Configure an S3 bucket policy with a condition
to allow access only from the VPC endpoint.
C. Configure an S3 bucket policy, and use an IP address condition to restrict access to the bucket. Allow access only
from the VPC CIDR range, and deny all other IP address ranges.
D. Create a new IAM role for the EC2 instances that provides access to the S3 bucket, and assign the role to the
application instances. Configure an S3 bucket policy to allow access only from the role.
Correct Answer: B


QUESTION 11
You have a hybrid infrastructure, and you need AWS resources to be able to resolve your on-premises DNS names.
You have configured a DNS server on an EC2 instance in your 10.1.3.0/24 subnet. This subnet resides on the VPC
10.1.0.0/16. What step should you take to accomplish this?
A. Configure your DNS server to forward queries for the private hosted zone to 10.1.3.2.
B. Configure the DHCP option set in the VPC to point to the EC2 DNS server.
C. Configure your DNS server to forward queries for the private hosted zone to 10.1.0.2.
D. Disable the source/destination check flag for the DNS instance.
Correct Answer: B
Explanation:
Your DNS server will forward queries to your on-premises DNS. You must configure the DHCP option set
so the instances will forward queries to your on-premises DNS instead of the VPC DNS.


QUESTION 12
Your company uses an NTP server to synchronize time across systems. The company runs multiple versions of Linux
and Windows systems. You discover that the NTP server has failed, and you need to add an alternate NTP server to
your instances.
Where should you apply the NTP server update to propagate information without rebooting your running instances?
A. DHCP Options Set
B. instance user-data
C. cfn-init scripts
D. instance meta-data
Correct Answer: C

QUESTION 13
Your company is expanding its cloud infrastructure and moving many of its flat files and static assets to S3. You
currently use a VPN to access your compute infrastructure, but you require more reliability for your static files as you are
offloading all of your important data to AWS. What is your best course of action while keeping costs low?
A. Create a Direct Connect connection using a Private VIF to access both compute and S3 resources.
B. Create an S3 endpoint and create a route to the endpoint prefix list for your VPN to allow access to your S3
resources.
C. Create two Direct Connect connections. Each connected to a Private VIF to ensure maximum resiliency.
D. Create a Direct Connect connection using a Public VIF and route your VPN over the DX connection to your VPN
endpoint.
Correct Answer: D
Explanation:
An S3 endpoint cannot be used with a VPN. A Private VIF cannot access S3 resources. A Public VIF with
a VPN will ensure security for your compute resources and access to your S3 resources. Two DX
connections are very expensive and a Private VIF still won\\’t allow access to your S3 resources.

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QUESTION 1
Which of the following states is not possible for the CloudWatch alarm?
A. ALERT
B. ALARM
C. OK
D. INSUFFICIENT_DATA
Correct Answer: A
Explanation: An alarm has three possible states: OK–The metric is within the defined threshold ALARM–The metric is
outside of the defined threshold INSUFFICIENT_DATA–The alarm has just started, the metric is not available, or not
enough data is available for the metric to determine the alarm state Reference:
http://docs.aws.amazon.com/AmazonCloudWatch/latest/DeveloperGuide/AlarmThatSendsEmail.html


QUESTION 2
Fill in the blanks: One of the basic characteristics of security groups for your VPC is that you ______ .
A. can specify allow rules as well as deny rules
B. can neither specify allow rules nor deny rules
C. can specify allow rules, but not deny rules
D. can specify deny rules, but not allow rules
Correct Answer: C
Explanation:
Security Groups in VPC allow you to specify rules with reference to the protocols and ports through which
communications with your instances can be established. One such rule is that you can specify allow rules,
but not deny rules.
Reference:
http://docs.aws.amazon.com/AmazonVPC/latest/UserGuide/VPC_SecurityGroups.html

QUESTION 3
A user has launched multiple EC2 instances for the purpose of development and testing in the same region. The user
wants to find the separate cost for the production and development instances. How can the user find the cost
distribution?
A. The user should download the activity report of the EC2 services as it has the instance ID wise data
B. It is not possible to get the AWS cost usage data of single region instances separately
C. The user should use Cost Distribution Metadata and AWS detailed billing
D. The user should use Cost Allocation Tags and AWS billing reports
Correct Answer: D
Explanation: AWS provides cost allocation tags to categorize and track the AWS costs. When the user applies tags to
his AWS resources (such as Amazon EC2 instances or Amazon S3 buckets), AWS generates a cost allocation report as
a comma-separated value (CSV file) with the usage and costs aggregated by those tags. The user can apply tags which
represent business categories (such as cost centers, application names, or instance type – Production/Dev. to organize
usage costs across multiple services.


QUESTION 4
A SysOps Administrator needs to retrieve a file from the GLACIER storage class of Amazon S3. The Administrator
wants to receive an Amazon SNS notification when the file is available for access.
What action should be taken to accomplish this?
A. Create an Amazon CloudWatch Events event for file restoration from Amazon S3 Glacier using the
GlacierJobDescription API and send the event to an SNS topic the Administrator has subscribed to.
B. Create an AWS Lambda function that performs a HEAD request on the object being restored and checks the storage
class of the object. Then send a notification to an SNS topic the Administrator has subscribed to when the storage class
changes to STANDARD.
C. Enable an Amazon S3 event notification for the s3:ObjectCreated:Postevent that sends a notification to an SNS topic
the Administrator has subscribed to.
D. Enable S3 event notification for the s3:ObjectCreated:Completed event that sends a notification to an SNS topic the
Administrator has subscribed to.
Correct Answer: C

QUESTION 5
A user has configured a VPC with a new subnet. The user has created a security group. The user wants to configure
that instances of the same subnet communicate with each other. How can the user configure this with the security
group?
A. There is no need for a security group modification as all the instances can communicate with each other inside the
same subnet
B. Configure the subnet as the source in the security group and allow traffic on all the protocols and ports C. Configure the security group itself as the source and allow traffic on all the protocols and ports
D. The user has to use VPC peering to configure this
Correct Answer: C
Explanation:
A Virtual Private Cloud (VPC. is a virtual network dedicated to the user\\’s AWS account. AWS provides two
features that the user can use to increase security in VPC: security groups and network ACLs. Security
groups work at the instance level. If the user is using the default security group, it will have a rule which
allows the instances to communicate with other. For a new security group, the user has to specify the rule,
add it to define the source as the security group itself, and select all the protocols and ports for that source.


QUESTION 6
An application is running on an Amazon EC2 instance. A SysOps Administrator is tasked with allowing the application
access to an Amazon S3 bucket.
What should be done to ensure optimal security?
A. Apply an S3 bucket policy to allow access from all EC2 instances.
B. Create an IAM user and create a script to inject the credentials on boot.
C. Create and assign an IAM role for Amazon S3 access to the EC2 instance.
D. Embed an AWS credentials file for an IAM user inside the Amazon Machine Image (AMI).
Correct Answer: C
Reference: https://docs.aws.amazon.com/IAM/latest/UserGuide/id_roles_use_switch-role-ec2.html

QUESTION 7
What does Amazon EC2 provide?
A. A platform to run code (Java, PHP, Python), paying on an hourly basis
B. A physical computing environment
C. Virtual Server Hosting
D. Domain Name System (DNS)
Correct Answer: C
Explanation:
Amazon EC2 provides Virtual Server Hosting.
Reference: http://aws.amazon.com/ec2/


QUESTION 8
A SysOps Administrator must generate a report that provides a breakdown of all API activity by a specific user over the
course of a year.
Given that AWS Cloud Trail was enabled, how can this report be generated?
A. Using the AWS management Console, search for the user name in the CloudTrail history. Then filter by API and
download the report in CSV format.
B. Use the CloudTrail digest files stored in the company\\’s Amazon S3 bucket. then send the logs to Amazon
QuickSight to create the report.
C. Locate the monthly reports that CloudTrail sends that are emailed to the account\\’s root user. Then forward the
reports to the auditor using a secure channel.
D. Access the CloudTrail logs stored in the Amazon S3 bucket tied to Cloud Trail. Use Amazon Athena to extract the
information needed to generate the report.
Correct Answer: D
Reference: https://aws.amazon.com/premiumsupport/knowledge-center/cloudtrail-search-for-activity/


QUESTION 9
A web-commerce application stores its data in an Amazon Aurora DB cluster with an Aurora replica. The application
displays shopping cart information by reading data from the reader endpoint. When monitoring the Aurora database, the
SysOps Administrator sees that the AuroraReplicaLagMaximum metric for a single replica is high.
What behavior is the application MOST likely exhibiting to users?
A. Users cannot add any items to the shopping cart.
B. Users intermittently notice that the cart is not updated correctly.
C. Users cannot remove any items from the shopping cart.
D. Users cannot use the application because it is falling back to an error page.
Correct Answer: B

QUESTION 10
In which screen does a user select the Availability Zones while configuring Auto Scaling?
A. Auto Scaling Group Creation
B. Auto Scaling Instance Creation
C. Auto Scaling Launch config Creation
D. Auto Scaling Policy Creation
Correct Answer: A
Explanation:
You can take advantage of the safety and reliability of geographic redundancy by spanning your Auto
Scaling group across multiple Availability Zones within a region and then attaching a load bal-ancer to
distribute incoming traffic across those Availability Zones. Incoming traffic is distributed equally across all
Availability Zones enabled for your load balancer.
Reference:
http://docs.aws.amazon.com/AutoScaling/latest/DeveloperGuide/GettingStartedTutorial.html

QUESTION 11
An application resides on multiple EC2 instances in public subnets in two Availability Zones. To improve security, the
Information Security team has deployed an Application Load Balancer (ALB) in separate subnets and pointed the DNS
at the ALB instead of the EC2 instances.
After the change, traffic is not reaching the instances, and an error is being returned from the ALB.
What steps must a SysOps Administrator take to resolve this issue and improve the security of the application? (Choose
two.)
A. Add the EC2 instances to the ALB target group, configure the health check, and ensure that the instances report
healthy.
B. Add the EC2 instances to an Auto Scaling group, configure the health check to ensure that the instances report
healthy, and remove the public IPs from the instances.
C. Create a new subnet in which EC2 instances and ALB will reside to ensure that they can communicate, and remove
the public IPs from the instances.
D. Change the security group for the EC2 instances to allow access from only the ALB security group, and remove the
public IPs from the instances.
E. Change the security group to allow access from 0.0.0.0/0, which permits access from the ALB.
Correct Answer: BD

QUESTION 12
A serverless application running on AWS Lambda is expected to receive a significant increase in traffic. A SysOps
Administrator needs to ensure that the Lambda function is configured to scale so the application can process the
increased traffic.
What should the Administrator do to accomplish this?
A. Attach additional elastic network interfaces to the Lambda function
B. Configure AWS Application Auto Scaling based on the Amazon CloudWatch Lambda metric for the number of
invocations
C. Ensure the concurrency limit for the Lambda function is higher than the expected simultaneous function executions
D. Increase the memory available to the Lambda function
Correct Answer: A


QUESTION 13
A company needs to ensure that all IAM users rotate their passwords on a regular basis.
Which action should be taken take to implement this?
A. Configure multi-factor authentication for all IAM users
B. Deactivate existing users and re-create new users every time a credential rotation is required
C. Re-create identity federation with new identity providers every time a credential rotation is required
D. Set up a password policy to enable password expiration for IAM users
Correct Answer: D
Reference: https://docs.aws.amazon.com/IAM/latest/UserGuide/id_credentials_passwords_accountpolicy.html

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QUESTION 1
Which technique can be used to integrate AWS IAM (Identity and Access Management) with an on-premise LDAP
(Lightweight Directory Access Protocol) directory service?
Please select: A. Use an IAM policy that references the LDAP account identifiers and the AWS credentials.
B. Use SAML (Security Assertion Markup Language) to enable single sign-on between AWS and LDAP.
C. Use AWS Security Token Service from an identity broker to issue short-lived AWS credentials.
D. Use IAM roles to automatically rotate the IAM credentials when LDAP credentials are updated.
Correct Answer: B
On the AWS Blog site the following information is present to help on this context The newly released whitepaper. Single
Sign-On: Integrating AWS, OpenLDAP, and Shibboleth, will help you integrate your existing LDAP-based user directory
with AWS. When you integrate your existing directory with AWS, your users can access AWS by using their existing
credentials. This means that your users don\\’t need to maintain yet another user name and password just to access
AWS resources. Option
A.C and D are all invalid because in this sort of configuration, you have to use SAML to enable single sign
on.
For more information on integrating AWS with LDAP for Single Sign-On, please visit the following URL:
https://aws.amazon.eom/blogs/security/new-whitepaper-sinEle-sign-on-inteErating-aws-openldap-andshibboleth/
The correct answer is: Use SAML (Security Assertion Markup Language) to enable single sign-on between
AWS and LDAP.


QUESTION 2
An application running on EC2 instances in a VPC must call an external web service via TLS (port 443). The instances
run in public subnets.
Which configurations below allow the application to function and minimize the exposure of the instances? Select 2
answers from the options given below
Please select:
A. A network ACL with a rule that allows outgoing traffic on port 443.
B. A network ACL with rules that allow outgoing traffic on port 443 and incoming traffic on ephemeral ports
C. A network ACL with rules that allow outgoing traffic on port 443 and incoming traffic on port 443.
D. A security group with a rule that allows outgoing traffic on port 443
E. A security group with rules that allow outgoing traffic on port 443 and incoming traffic on ephemeral ports.
F. A security group with rules that allow outgoing traffic on port 443 and incoming traffic on port 443.
Correct Answer: BD
Since here the traffic needs to flow outbound from the Instance to a web service on Port 443, the outbound rules on
both the Network and Security Groups need to allow outbound traffic. The Incoming traffic should be allowed on
ephemeral ports for the Operating System on the Instance to allow a connection to be established on any desired or
available port. Option A is invalid because this rule alone is not enough. You also need to ensure incoming traffic on
ephemeral ports Option C is invalid because need to ensure incoming traffic on ephemeral ports and not only port 443
Options E and F are invalid since here you are allowing additional ports on Security groups which are not required For
more information on VPC Security Groups, please visit the below URL:
https://docs.aws.amazon.com/AmazonVPC/latest/UserGuideA/PC_SecurityGroups.htmll The correct answers are: A
network ACL with rules that allow outgoing traffic on port 443 and incoming traffic on ephemeral ports, A security group
with a rule that allows outgoing traffic on port 443


QUESTION 3
In response to the past DDoS attack experiences, a Security Engineer has set up an Amazon CloudFront distribution for
an Amazon S3 bucket. There is concern that some users may bypass the CloudFront distribution and access the S3
bucket directly.
What must be done to prevent users from accessing the S3 objects directly by using URLs?
A. Change the S3 bucket/object permission so that only the bucket owner has access.
B. Set up a CloudFront origin access identity (OAI), and change the S3 bucket/object permission so that only the OAI
has access.
C. Create IAM roles for CloudFront and change the S3 bucket/object permission so that only the IAM role has access.
D. Redirect S3 bucket access to the corresponding CloudFront distribution.
Correct Answer: B
https://docs.aws.amazon.com/AmazonCloudFront/latest/DeveloperGuide/private-content-restrictingaccess-to-s3.html

QUESTION 4
An application has been built with Amazon EC2 instances that retrieve messages from Amazon SQS. Recently, IAM
changes were made and the instances can no longer retrieve messages.
What actions should be taken to troubleshoot the issue while maintaining the least privilege? (Select two.)
A. Configure and assign an MFA device to the role used by the instances.
B. Verify that the SQS resource policy does not explicitly deny access to the role used by the instances.
C. Verify that the access key attached to the role used by the instances is active.
D. Attach the AmazonSQSFullAccess managed policy to the role used by the instances.
E. Verify that the role attached to the instances contains policies that allow access to the queue.
Correct Answer: BE


QUESTION 5
A Security Engineer is implementing a solution to allow users to seamlessly encrypt Amazon S3 objects without having
to touch the keys directly. The solution must be highly scalable without requiring continual management. Additionally,
the organization must be able to immediately delete the encryption keys.
Which solution meets these requirements?
A. Use AWS KMS with AWS managed keys and the ScheduleKeyDeletion API with a PendingWindowInDays set to 0 to
remove the keys if necessary.
B. Use KMS with AWS imported key material and then use the DeletelmportedKeyMaterial API to remove the key
material if necessary.
C. Use AWS CloudHSM to store the keys and then use the CloudHSM API or the PKCS11 library to delete the keys if
necessary.
D. Use the Systems Manager Parameter Store to store the keys and then use the service API operations to delete the
key if necessary.
Correct Answer: C
https://docs.aws.amazon.com/kms/latest/developerguide/importing-keys-delete-key-material.html

QUESTION 6
After multiple compromises of its Amazon EC2 instances, a company\\’s Security Officer is mandating that memory
dumps of compromised instances be captured for further analysis. A Security Engineer just received an EC2 abuse
notification report from AWS stating that an EC2 instance running the most recent Windows Server 2019 Base AMI is
compromised.
How should the Security Engineer collect a memory dump of the EC2 instance for forensic analysis?
A. Give consent to the AWS Security team to dump the memory core on the compromised instance and provide it to
AWS Support for analysis.
B. Review memory dump data that the AWS Systems Manager Agent sent to Amazon CloudWatch Logs.
C. Download and run the EC2Rescue for Windows Server utility from AWS.
D. Reboot the EC2 Windows Server, enter safe mode, and select memory dump.
Correct Answer: A


QUESTION 7
A Security Architect has been asked to review existing security architecture and identify why the application servers
cannot successfully initiate a connection to the database servers. The following summary describes the architecture:
1 An Application Load Balancer, an internet gateway, and a NAT gateway are configured in the public subnet 2.
Database, application, and web servers are configured on three different private subnets.
3 The VPC has two route tables: one for the public subnet and one for all other subnets The route table for the public
subnet has a 0 0 0 0/0 route to the internet gateway The route table for all other subnets has a 0 0.0.0/0 route to the
NAT gateway. All private subnets can route to each other
4 Each subnet has a network ACL implemented that limits all inbound and outbound connectivity to only the required
ports and protocols
5 There are 3 Security Groups (SGs) database application and web Each group limits all inbound and outbound
connectivity to the minimum required
Which of the following accurately reflects the access control mechanisms the Architect should verify1?
A. Outbound SG configuration on database servers Inbound SG configuration on application servers inbound and
outbound network ACL configuration on the database subnet Inbound and outbound network ACL configuration on the
application server subnet
B. Inbound SG configuration on database servers Outbound SG configuration on application servers Inbound and
outbound network ACL configuration on the database subnet Inbound and outbound network ACL configuration on the
application server subnet
C. Inbound and outbound SG configuration on database servers Inbound and outbound SG configuration on application
servers Inbound network ACL configuration on the database subnet Outbound network ACL configuration on the
application server subnet
D. Inbound SG configuration on database servers Outbound SG configuration on application servers Inbound network
ACL configuration on the database subnet Outbound network ACL configuration on the application server subnet.
Correct Answer: A

QUESTION 8
A company became aware that one of its access keys was exposed on a code-sharing website 11 days ago. A Security
The engineer must review all use of the exposed access keys to determine the extent of the exposure. The company
enabled AWS CloudTrail m a regions when it opened the account
Which of the following will allow (Security Engineer 10 to complete the task?
A. Filter the event history on the exposed access key in the CloudTrail console Examine the data from the past 11
days.
B. Use the AWS CLI to generate an IAM credential report Extract all the data from the past 11 days.
C. Use Amazon Athena to query the CloudTrail logs from Amazon S3 Retrieve the rows for the exposed access key tor
the past 11 days.
D. Use the Access Advisor tab in the IAM console to view all of the access key activity for the past 11 days.
Correct Answer: C

QUESTION 9
A company is deploying a new web application on AWS. Based on their other web applications, they anticipate being
the target of frequent DDoS attacks. Which steps can the company use to protect its application? Select 2 answers
from the options given below.
Please select:
A. Associate the EC2 instances with a security group that blocks traffic from blacklisted IP addresses.
B. Use an ELB Application Load Balancer and Auto Scaling group to scale to absorb application-layer traffic.
C. Use Amazon Inspector on the EC2 instances to examine incoming traffic and discard malicious traffic.
D. Use CloudFront and AWS WAF to prevent malicious traffic from reaching the application
E. Enable GuardDuty to block malicious traffic from reaching the application
Correct Answer: BD
The below diagram from AWS shows the best-case scenario for avoiding DDoS attacks using services such as AWS
Cloudflare WAF, ELB, and Autoscaling

scs-c01 exam questions-q9

Option A is invalid because by default security groups don\\’t allow access Option C is invalid because AWS Inspector
cannot be used to examine traffic Option E is invalid because this can be used for attacks on EC2 Instances but not
against DDos attacks on the entire application For more information on DDoS mitigation from AWS, please visit the
below URL: https://aws.amazon.com/answers/networking/aws-ddos-attack-mitieationi The correct answers are: Use an
ELB Application Load Balancer and Auto Scaling group to scale to absorb application-layer traffic., Use CloudFront and
AWS WAF to prevent malicious traffic from reaching the application


QUESTION 10
You have an Ec2 Instance in a private subnet that needs to access the KMS service. Which of the following methods
can help fulfill this requirement, keeping security in perspective
Please select:
A. Use a VPC endpoint
B. Attach an Internet gateway to the subnet
C. Attach a VPN connection to the VPC
D. Use VPC Peering
Correct Answer: A
The AWS Documentation mentions the following You can connect directly to AWS KMS through a private endpoint in
your VPC instead of connecting over the internet. When you use a VPC endpoint communication between your VPC
and AWS KMS is conducted entirely within the AWS network. Option B is invalid because this could open threats from
the internet Option C is invalid because this is normally used for communication between on-premise environments and
AWS. Option D is invalid because this is normally used for communication between VPCs For more information on
accessing KMS via an endpoint, please visit the following URL
https://docs.aws.amazon.com/kms/latest/developerguide/kms-vpcendpoint.htmll The correct answer is: Use a VPC endpoint

QUESTION 11
A company has external vendors that must deliver files to the company. These vendors have cross-account that gives
their permission to upload objects to one of the company\\’s S3 buckets.
What combination of steps must the vendor follow to successfully deliver a file to the company? Select 2 answers from
the options are given below
Please select:
A. Attach an IAM role to the bucket that grants the bucket owner full permissions to the object
B. Add a grant to the objects ACL giving full permissions to the bucket owner.
C. Encrypt the object with a KMS key controlled by the company.
D. Add a bucket policy to the bucket that grants the bucket owner full permissions to the object
E. Upload the file to the company\\’s S3 bucket
Correct Answer: BE
This scenario is given in the AWS Documentation A bucket owner can enable other AWS accounts to upload objects.
These objects are owned by the accounts that created them. The bucket owner does not own objects that were not
created by the bucket owner. Therefore, for the bucket owner to grant access to these objects, the object owner must
first grant permission to the bucket owner to use an object ACL. The bucket owner can then delegate those permissions
via a bucket policy. In this example, the bucket owner delegates permission to users in its own account.

scs-c01 exam questions-q11

Options A and D are invalid because bucket ACL\\’s are used to give grants to bucket Option C is not required since
the encryption is not part of the requirement For more information on this scenario please see the below Link:
https://docs.aws.amazon.com/AmazonS3/latest/dev/example-walkthroushs-manaeing-accessexample3.htmll The
correct answers are: Add a grant to the objects ACL giving full permissions to bucket owner., Upload the file to the
company\\’s S3 bucket


QUESTION 12
Your company has a set of EC2 Instances defined in AWS. These Ec2 Instances have strict security groups attached to
them. You need to ensure that changes to the Security groups are noted and acted on accordingly. How can you
achieve this?
Please select:
A. Use Cloudwatch logs to monitor the activity on the Security Groups. Use filters to search for the changes and use
SNS for the notification.
B. Use Cloudwatch metrics to monitor the activity on the Security Groups. Use filters to search for the changes and use
SNS for the notification.
C. Use AWS inspector to monitor the activity on the Security Groups. Use filters to search for the changes and use SNS
f the notification.
D. Use Cloudwatch events to be triggered for any changes to the Security Groups.Configure the Lambda function for
email notification as well.
Correct Answer: D
The below diagram from an AWS blog shows how security groups can be monitored Option A is invalid because you
need to use Cloudwatch Events to check for chan, Option B is invalid because you need to use Cloudwatch Events to
check for change Option C is invalid because AWS inspector is not used to monitoring the activity on Security Groups For
more information on monitoring security groups, please visit the below URL: Ihttpsy/aws.amazon.com/blogs/security/how-to-automatically-revert-and-receive-notifications-aboutchanges-to-your-amazonj \\’pc-security-groups/ The correct
answer is: Use Cloudwatch events to be triggered for any changes to the Security Groups. Configure the Lambda
function for email notification as well.

scs-c01 exam questions-q12

 

QUESTION 13
An external Auditor finds that a company\\’s user passwords have no minimum length. The company is currently using
two identity providers:
1.
AWS IAM federated with on-premises Active Directory
2.
Amazon Cognito user pools to accessing an AWS Cloud application developed by the company
Which combination o1 actions should the Security Engineer take to solve this issue? (Select TWO.)
A. Update the password length policy In the on-premises Active Directory configuration.
B. Update the password length policy In the IAM configuration.
C. Enforce an IAM policy In Amazon Cognito and AWS IAM with a minimum password length condition.
D. Update the password length policy in the Amazon Cognito configuration.
E. Create an SCP with AWS Organizations that enforces a minimum password length for AWS IAM and Amazon
Cognito.
Correct Answer: AC

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QUESTION 1
A company is launching a dynamic website, and the Operations team expects up to 10 times the traffic on the launch
date. This website is hosted on Amazon EC2 instances and traffic is distributed by Amazon Route 53. A Solutions
The architect must ensure that there is enough backend capacity to meet user demands. The Operations team wants to
scale down as quickly as possible after the launch.
What is the MOST cost-effective and fault-tolerant solution that will meet the company\\’s customer demands? (Choose
two.)
A. Set up an Application Load Balancer to distribute traffic to multiple EC2 instances
B. Set up an Auto Scaling group across multiple Availability Zones for the website, and create scale-out and scale-in
policies
C. Create an Amazon CloudWatch alarm to send an email through Amazon SNS when EC2 instances experience
higher loads
D. Create an AWS Lambda function to monitor website load time, run it every 5 minutes, and use the AWS SDK to
create a new instance if the website load time is longer than 2 seconds
E. Use Amazon CloudFront to cache the website content during launch and set a TTL for cache content to expire after
the launch date
Correct Answer: AE


QUESTION 2
A Solutions Architect is asked to improve the fault tolerance of an existing Python application. The web application
places 1-MB images is an S3 bucket. The application then uses a single t2.large instance to transform the image to
include a watermark with the company\\’s brand before writing the image back to the S3 bucket.
What should the Solutions Architect recommend to increase the fault tolerance of the solution?
A. Convert the code to a Lambda function triggered by scheduled Amazon CloudWatch Events.
B. Increase the instance size to m4.xlarge and configure Enhanced Networking.
C. Convert the code to a Lambda function triggered by Amazon S3 events.
D. Create an Amazon SQS queue to send the images to the t2.large instance.
Correct Answer: C

QUESTION 3
In Amazon IAM, what is the maximum length for a role name?
A. 128 characters
B. 512 characters
C. 64 characters
D. 256 characters
Correct Answer: C
In Amazon IAM, the maximum length for a role name is 64 characters. Reference: http://docs.aws.amazon.com/IANI/latest/UserGuide/LimitationsOnEntities.html


QUESTION 4
A legacy application needs to interact with local storage using iSCSI. A team needs to design a reliable storage solution
to provide all new storage on AWS. Which storage solution meets the legacy application requirements?
A. AWS Snowball storage for the legacy application until the application can be re-architected.
B. AWS Storage Gateway in the cached mode for the legacy application storage to write data to Amazon S3.
C. AWS Storage Gateway in the stored mode for the legacy application storage to write data to Amazon S3.
D. An Amazon S3 volume mounted on the legacy application server locally using the File Gateway service.
Correct Answer: C

QUESTION 5
You are migrating a legacy client-server application to AWS. The application responds to a specific DNS domain (e.g.
www.example.com) and has a 2-tier architecture, with multiple application servers and a database server. Remote
clients
use TCP to connect to the application servers. The application servers need to know the IP address of the clients in
order to function properly and are currently taking that information from the TCP socket. A Multi-AZ RDS MySQL
instance will
be used for the database.
During the migration, you can change the application code, but you have to file a change request. How would you
implement the architecture on AWS in order to maximize scalability and high availability?
A. File a change request to implement Alias Resource support in the application. Use Route 53 Alias Resource Record
to distribute the load on two application servers in different AZs.
B. File a change request to implement Latency-Based Routing support in the application. Use Route 53 with Latency
Based Routing enabled to distribute the load on two application servers in different AZs.
C. File a change request to implement Cross-Zone support in the application. Use an ELB with a TCP Listener and
Cross-Zone Load Balancing enabled two application servers in different AZs.
D. File a change request to implement Proxy Protocol support in the application. Use an ELB with a TCP Listener and
Proxy Protocol enabled to distribute the load on two application servers in different AZs.
Correct Answer: D


QUESTION 6
A company is using Amazon S3 as its local repository for weekly analysis reports. One of the company-wide
requirements is to secure data at rest using encryption. The company chose Amazon S3 server-side encryption. The
company wants to know how the object is decrypted when a GET request is issued.
Which of the following answers this question?
A. The user needs to place a PUT request to decrypt the object.
B. The user needs to decrypt the object using a private key.
C. Amazon S3 manages encryption and decryption automatically.
D. Amazon S3 provides a server-side key for decrypting the object.
Correct Answer: D


QUESTION 7
A Solutions Architect is building a WordPress-based web application hosted on AWS using Amazon EC2. This
application serves as a blog for an international internet security company. The application must be geographically
redundant and scalable. It must separate the public Amazon EC2 web servers from the private Amazon RDS database,
it must be highly available, and it must support dynamic port routing.
Which combination of AWS services or capabilities will meet these requirements?
A. AWS Auto Scaling with a Classic Load Balancer, and AWS CloudTrail
B. Amazon Route 53, Auto Scaling with an Application Load Balancer, and Amazon CloudFront
C. A VPC, a NAT gateway and Auto Scaling with a Network Load Balancer
D. CloudFront, Route 53, and Auto Scaling with a Classic Load Balancer
Correct Answer: A

QUESTION 8
You are designing the network infrastructure for an application server in Amazon VPC Users will access all the
application instances from the Internet as well as from an on-premises network The on- premises network is connected
to your
VPC over an AWS Direct Connect link.
How would you design routing to meet the above requirements?
A. Configure a single routing Table with a default route via the Internet gateway Propagate a default route via BGP on
the AWS Direct Connect customer router. Associate the routing table with all VPC subnets.
B. Configure a single routing table with a default route via the internet gateway Propagate specific routes for the onpremises networks via BGP on the AWS Direct Connect customer router Associate the routing table with all VPC
subnets.
C. Configure a single routing table with two default routes: one to the internet via an Internet gateway the other to the onpremises network via the VPN gateway use this routing table across all subnets in your VPC,
D. Configure two routing tables one that has a default route via the Internet gateway and another that has a default
route via the VPN gateway Associate both routing tables with each VPC subnet.
Correct Answer: B


QUESTION 9
A Solution Architect is designing a two-tier application for maximum security, with a web tier running on EC2 instances
and the data stored in an RDS DB instance. The web tier should accept user access only through HTTPS connections
(port 443) from the Internet, and the data must be encrypted in transit to and from the database.
What combination of steps will MOST securely meet the stated requirements? (Choose two.)
A. Create a security group for the web tier instances that allows inbound traffic only over port 443.
B. Enforce Transparent Data Encryption (TDE) on the RDS database.
C. Create a network ACL that allows inbound traffic only over port 443.
D. Configure the web servers to communicate with RDS by using SSL, and issue certificates to the web tier EC2
instances.
E. Create a customer master key in AWS KMS and apply it to encrypt the RDS instance.
Correct Answer: CD


QUESTION 10
An Administrator is hosting an application on a single Amazon EC2 instance, which users can access by the public
hostname. The administrator is adding a second instance but does not want users to have to decide between many
public hostnames.
Which AWS service will decouple the users from specific Amazon EC2 instances?
A. Amazon SQS
B. Auto Scaling group
C. Amazon EC2 security group
D. Amazon ELB
Correct Answer: D

QUESTION 11
A company is launching a marketing campaign on their website tomorrow and expects a significant increase in traffic.
The website is designed as a multi-tiered web architecture, and the increase in traffic could potentially overwhelm the
current design.
What should a Solutions Architect do to minimize the effects from a potential failure in one or more of the tiers?
A. Migrate the database to Amazon RDS.
B. Set up DNS failover to a statistic website.
C. Use Auto Scaling to keep up with the demand.
D. Use both a SQL and a NoSQL database in the design.
Correct Answer: C


QUESTION 12
A company\\’s development team plans to create an Amazon S3 bucket that contains millions of images. The team
wants to maximize the read performance of Amazon S3.
Which naming scheme should the company use?
A. Add a date as the prefix.
B. Add a sequential id as the suffix.
C. Add a hexadecimal hash as the suffix.
D. Add a hexadecimal hash as the prefix.
Correct Answer: D
Reference: https://aws.amazon.com/premiumsupport/knowledge-center/s3-bucket-performance-improve/

QUESTION 13
Your company produces customer commissioned one-of-a-kind skiing helmets combining nigh fashion with a custom
technical enhancements Customers can show off their Individuality on the ski slopes and have access to head-up displays.
GPS rear-view cams and any other technical innovation they wish to embed in the helmet.
The current manufacturing process is data-rich and complex including assessments to ensure that the custom
electronics and materials used to assemble the helmets are to the highest standards Assessments are a mixture of
human and automated assessments you need to add a new set of assessment to model the failure modes of the custom electronics
using GPUs with CUDA, across a cluster of servers with low latency networking. What architecture would allow you to
automate the existing process using a hybrid approach and ensure that the architecture can support the evolution of
processes over time?
A. Use AWS Data Pipeline to manage the movement of data and meta-data and assessments Use an auto-scaling group
of G2 instances in a placement group.
B. Use Amazon Simple Workflow (SWF) to manages assessments, movement of data and meta-data Use an autoscaling group of G2 instances in a placement group.
C. Use Amazon Simple Workflow (SWF) to manages assessment movement of data and meta-data Use an autoscaling group of C3 instances with SR-IOV (Single Root I/O Virtualization).
D. Use AWS data Pipeline to manage the movement of data and meta-data and assessments use auto-scaling group of C3
with SR-IOV (Single Root I/O virtualization).
Correct Answer: B

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Latest Amazon AWS MLS-C01 practice exam questions at here:

QUESTION 1
A Machine Learning Specialist is using Apache Spark for pre-processing training data As part of the Spark pipeline, the
Specialist wants to use Amazon SageMaker for training a model and hosting it Which of the following would the
Specialist do to integrate the Spark application with SageMaker? (Select THREE )
A. Download the AWS SDK for the Spark environment
B. Install the SageMaker Spark library in the Spark environment.
C. Use the appropriate estimator from the SageMaker Spark Library to train a model.
D. Compress the training data into a ZIP file and upload it to a pre-defined Amazon S3 bucket.
E. Use the sageMakerModel. transform method to get inferences from the model hosted in SageMaker
F. Convert the DataFrame object to a CSV file, and use the CSV file as input for obtaining inferences from SageMaker.
Correct Answer: DEF


QUESTION 2
Amazon Connect has recently been tolled out across a company as a contact call center The solution has been
configured to store voice call recordings on Amazon S3
The content of the voice calls are being analyzed for the incidents being discussed by the call operators Amazon
Transcribe is being used to convert the audio to text, and the output is stored on Amazon S3
Which approach will provide the information required for further analysis?
A. Use Amazon Comprehend with the transcribed files to build the key topics
B. Use Amazon Translate with the transcribed files to train and build a model for the key topics
C. Use the AWS Deep Learning AMI with Gluon Semantic Segmentation on the transcribed files to train and build a
model for the key topics
D. Use the Amazon SageMaker k-Nearest-Neighbors (kNN) algorithm on the transcribed files to generate a word
embeddings dictionary for the key topics
Correct Answer: B


QUESTION 3
A Machine Learning Specialist wants to determine the appropriate SageMakerVariantInvocationsPerInstance setting for
an endpoint automatic scaling configuration. The Specialist has performed a load test on a single instance and
determined that peak requests per second (RPS) without service degradation is about 20 RPS. As this is the first
deployment, the Specialist intends to set the invocation safety factor to 0.5.
Based on the stated parameters and given that the invocations per instance setting is measured on a per-minute basis,
what should the Specialist set as the SageMakerVariantInvocationsPerInstancesetting?
A. 10
B. 30
C. 600
D. 2,400
Correct Answer: C


QUESTION 4
An insurance company is developing a new device for vehicles that uses a camera to observe drivers\\’ behavior and
alert them when they appear distracted The company created approximately 10,000 training images in a controlled
environment that a Machine Learning Specialist will use to train and evaluate machine learning models
During the model evaluation the Specialist notices that the training error rate diminishes faster as the number of epochs
increases and the model is not accurately inferring on the unseen test images
Which of the following should be used to resolve this issue? (Select TWO)
A. Add vanishing gradient to the model
B. Perform data augmentation on the training data
C. Make the neural network architecture complex.
D. Use gradient checking in the model
E. Add L2 regularization to the model
Correct Answer: BD

QUESTION 5
A credit card company wants to build a credit scoring model to help predict whether a new credit card applicant will
default on a credit card payment. The company has collected data from a large number of sources with thousands of
raw attributes. Early experiments to train a classification model revealed that many attributes are highly correlated, the
large number of features slows down the training speed significantly, and that there are some overfitting issues.
The Data Scientist on this project would like to speed up the model training time without losing a lot of information from
the original dataset.
Which feature engineering technique should the Data Scientist use to meet the objectives?
A. Run self-correlation on all features and remove highly correlated features
B. Normalize all numerical values to be between 0 and 1
C. Use an autoencoder or principal component analysis (PCA) to replace original features with new features
D. Cluster raw data using k-means and use sample data from each cluster to build a new dataset
Correct Answer: B


QUESTION 6
A financial services company is building a robust serverless data lake on Amazon S3. The data lake should be flexible
and meet the following requirements:
1.
Support querying old and new data on Amazon S3 through Amazon Athena and Amazon Redshift Spectrum.
2.
Support event-driven ETL pipelines.
3.
Provide a quick and easy way to understand metadata.
Which approach meets trfese requirements?
A. Use an AWS Glue crawler to crawl S3 data, an AWS Lambda function to trigger an AWS Glue ETL job, and an AWS
Glue Data catalog to search and discover metadata.
B. Use an AWS Glue crawler to crawl S3 data, an AWS Lambda function to trigger an AWS Batch job, and an external
Apache Hive metastore to search and discover metadata.
C. Use an AWS Glue crawler to crawl S3 data, an Amazon CloudWatch alarm to trigger an AWS Batch job, and an
AWS Glue Data Catalog to search and discover metadata.
D. Use an AWS Glue crawler to crawl S3 data, an Amazon CloudWatch alarm to trigger an AWS Glue ETL job, and an
external Apache Hive metastore to search and discover metadata.
Correct Answer: B

QUESTION 7
A Machine Learning Specialist is creating a new natural language processing application that processes a dataset
comprised of 1 million sentences. The aim is to then run Word2Vec to generate embeddings of the sentences and
enable different types of predictions.
Here is an example from the dataset:
“The quck BROWN FOX jumps over the lazy dog.”
Which of the following are the operations the Specialist needs to perform to correctly sanitize and prepare the data in a
repeatable manner? (Choose three.)
A. Perform part-of-speech tagging and keep the action verb and the nouns only
B. Normalize all words by making the sentence lowercase
C. Remove stop words using an English stopword dictionary.
D. Correct the typography on “quck” to “quick.”
E. One-hot encode all words in the sentence
F. Tokenize the sentence into words.
Correct Answer: ABD


QUESTION 8
For the given confusion matrix, what is the recall and precision of the model?

MLS-C01 exam questions-q8

A. Recall = 0.92 Precision = 0.84
B. Recall = 0.84 Precision = 0.8
C. Recall = 0.92 Precision = 0.8
D. Recall = 0.8 Precision = 0.92
Correct Answer: A


QUESTION 9
Which of the following metrics should a Machine Learning Specialist generally use to compare/evaluate machine
learning classification models against each other?
A. Recall
B. Misclassification rate
C. Mean absolute percentage error (MAPE)
D. Area Under the ROC Curve (AUC)
Correct Answer: A
Reference: https://docs.aws.amazon.com/machine-learning/latest/dg/multiclass-model-insights.html


QUESTION 10
During mini-batch training of a neural network for a classification problem, a Data Scientist notices that training accuracy
oscillates What is the MOST likely cause of this issue?
A. The class distribution in the dataset is imbalanced
B. Dataset shuffling is disabled
C. The batch size is too big
D. The learning rate is very high
Correct Answer: D
Reference: https://towardsdatascience.com/deep-learning-personal-notes-part-1-lesson-2-8946fe970b95

QUESTION 11
A Machine Learning Specialist has completed a proof of concept for a company using a small data sample and now the
Specialist is ready to implement an end-to-end solution in AWS using Amazon SageMaker The historical training data is
stored in Amazon RDS Which approach should the Specialist use for training a model using that data?
A. Write a direct connection to the SQL database within the notebook and pull data in
B. Push the data from Microsoft SQL Server to Amazon S3 using an AWS Data Pipeline and provide the S3 location
within the notebook.
C. Move the data to Amazon DynamoDB and set up a connection to DynamoDB within the notebook to pull data in
D. Move the data to Amazon ElastiCache using AWS DMS and set up a connection within the notebook to pull data in
for fast access.
Correct Answer: B


QUESTION 12
A Machine Learning Specialist is working with multiple data sources containing billions of records that need to be joined.
What features engineering and model development approach should the Specialist take with a dataset this large?
A. Use an Amazon SageMaker notebook for both feature engineering and model development
B. Use an Amazon SageMaker notebook for feature engineering and Amazon ML for model development
C. Use Amazon EMR for feature engineering and Amazon SageMaker SDK for model development
D. Use Amazon ML for both feature engineering and model development.
Correct Answer: B


QUESTION 13
A data scientist is developing a pipeline to ingest streaming web traffic data. The data scientist needs to
implement a process to identify unusual web traffic patterns as part of the pipeline. The patterns will be
used downstream for alerting and incident response. The data scientist has access to unlabeled historic
data to use, if needed.
The solution needs to do the following:
Calculate an anomaly score for each web traffic entry.
Adapt unusual event identification to changing web patterns over time.
Which approach should the data scientist implement to meet these requirements?
A. Use historic web traffic data to train an anomaly detection model using the Amazon SageMaker Random Cut Forest
(RCF) built-in model. Use an Amazon Kinesis Data Stream to process the incoming web traffic data. Attach a
preprocessing AWS Lambda function to perform data enrichment by calling the RCF model to calculate the anomaly
the score for each record.
B. Use historic web traffic data to train an anomaly detection model using the Amazon SageMaker built-in XGBoost
model. Use an Amazon Kinesis Data Stream to process the incoming web traffic data. Attach a preprocessing AWS
Lambda function to perform data enrichment by calling the XGBoost model to calculate the anomaly score for each
record.
C. Collect the streaming data using Amazon Kinesis Data Firehose. Map the delivery stream as an input source for
Amazon Kinesis Data Analytics. Write a SQL query to run in real-time against the streaming data with the k-Nearest
Neighbors (kNN) SQL extension to calculate anomaly scores for each record using a tumbling window.
D. Collect the streaming data using Amazon Kinesis Data Firehose. Map the delivery stream as an input source for
Amazon Kinesis Data Analytics. Write a SQL query to run in real-time against the streaming data with the Amazon
Random Cut Forest (RCF) SQL extension to calculate anomaly scores for each record using a sliding window.
Correct Answer: A

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